C3 Ultimate Revision Notes

Revision notes I made for my own personal revision. Contains everything you need to know for AQA C3 (missed out water cycle though as its year 2 stuff!). Really good for revision as I have highlighted key words and have presented everything quite neatly and clearly. Hope this helps you guys!!! Good luck on the exams!! I'm nervous... too much stuff to learn!!

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  • Created on: 06-01-12 13:25
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Development of the Periodic Table
History
1808- John Dalton arranged the elements in order of mass in a table of elements.

1862- Alexandre-Emile showed similarities between every eighth element which he explained using
a diagram. The diagram was not published with his work as it was missed out so it…

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Halogens- Group 7
Poisonous non-metals
Have coloured vapours.
Low melting and boiling points.
Poor conductors of heat and electricity.
Fluorine- Very reactive, pale yellow gas.
Chlorine-dense green gas- bleaches damp litmus paper.
Bromine- orange brown liquid which vaporises really easily and is volatile.
Iodine-Poisonous dark grey solid which produces violet…

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Acid and Bases
Strong and Weak Acids/Alkalis
Acids form H+ ions when they dissolve in water . A H+ ion is a hydrogen atom which has lost
its electrons so it is a proton. Therefore acids are proton donors.
Hydrated hydrogen ion (H+ (aq))- A H+ ion surrounded by water…

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Titration Flowchart




Titration Calculations
Number of moles = Concentration x Volume

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Water
Solubility
Solids- As temperature increases, solubility increases.
Gases- Behave the opposite way to solids:
o As temperature increases solubility decreases.
o As pressure increases, solubility increases.


Hard Water
Hard water contains dissolved calcium and magnesium compounds.
The calcium and magnesium ions react with soap to form scum. This makes…

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Water Treatment

Water Filter Jugs:
Water passes through filter cartridge containing activated carbon, an ion exchange resin and
silver.
Carbon in filter reduces levels of organic impurities such as pesticides and chlorine in the
water.
Ion exchange resin removes calcium, magnesium, lead and copper ions.
Silver discourages growth of bacteria.…

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Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions
Comparing Energy Produced by Fuels
Exothermic reactions produce energy.
Energy change can be measured using a bomb calorimeter by mixing the reactants in an
insulated container and measuring the temperature change of the solution.
Energy in food is measure by burning the foods in a…

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Analysis
Tests for Positive Ions

Flame Tests




Element Flame Colour
Lithium Bright red
Sodium Golden yellow
Potassium Lilac
Calcium Brick Red
Barium Green


Sodium Hydroxide Test
Aluminium, calcium and magnesium ions form a white precipitate when sodium hydroxide
solution is added.
The precipitate formed with aluminium ions dissolves in an…

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When sodium hydroxide is added to a substance containing ammonium ions, ammonia is formed.
When the solution is gently warmed the ammonia becomes a gas which can be detected using damp
red litmus paper. The litmus paper turns blue as ammonia is an alkaline gas.


Tests for Negative Ions
Carbonates…

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