C3 Ultimate Revision Notes

Revision notes I made for my own personal revision. Contains everything you need to know for AQA C3 (missed out water cycle though as its year 2 stuff!). Really good for revision as I have highlighted key words and have presented everything quite neatly and clearly. Hope this helps you guys!!! Good luck on the exams!! I'm nervous... too much stuff to learn!!

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  • Created by: Aneesah
  • Created on: 06-01-12 13:25
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Development of the Periodic Table
1808- John Dalton arranged the elements in order of mass in a table of elements.
1862- Alexandre-Emile showed similarities between every eighth element which he explained using
a diagram. The diagram was not published with his work as it was missed out so it was hard to
1863- John Newland built on these ideas with his law of octaves. He produced a table of octaves but
was so determined to make it work that he placed two elements at the same points and even placed
elements in octaves when they were not similar at all. His ideas were not accepted.
1869- Dmitri Mendeleev placed elements in order of their atomic masses, leaving gaps for
undiscovered elements.
Modern Periodic Table
We now arrange elements in order of their proton number.
Group 1 - reactivity increases as we go down the groups as it is easier to lose the extra
electron as it gets further away from the nucleus.
Group 7 - Reactivity decreases going down the group as it is harder to gain an electron due
to the shielding of inner energy levels
Alkali Metals- Group 1
Very reactive so stored in oil to stop them reacting with
Lithium is the least reactive and francium is the most.
Low density, soft, low boiling and melting point (for metals).
Silvery shiny look when cut but quickly go dull due to oxide
React with water to form hydroxides which are alkaline and
soluble in water.
Sodium + water sodium hydroxide+ hydrogen
React with group seven to form soluble crystals.

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Halogens- Group 7
Poisonous non-metals
Have coloured vapours.
Low melting and boiling points.
Poor conductors of heat and electricity.
Fluorine- Very reactive, pale yellow gas.
Chlorine-dense green gas- bleaches damp litmus paper.
Bromine- orange brown liquid which vaporises really easily and is volatile.
Iodine-Poisonous dark grey solid which produces violet coloured vapour when heated.
Halogens exist as diatomic molecules.
Take part in both covalent and ionic bonding.…read more

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Acid and Bases
Strong and Weak Acids/Alkalis
Acids form H+ ions when they dissolve in water . A H+ ion is a hydrogen atom which has lost
its electrons so it is a proton. Therefore acids are proton donors.
Hydrated hydrogen ion (H+ (aq))- A H+ ion surrounded by water molecules to keep it in the
When bases dissolves in water it form OH- ions. These combine readily with protons to form
water. Therefore, we call bases proton acceptors.…read more

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Titration Flowchart
Titration Calculations
Number of moles = Concentration x Volume…read more

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Solids- As temperature increases, solubility increases.
Gases- Behave the opposite way to solids:
o As temperature increases solubility decreases.
o As pressure increases, solubility increases.
Hard Water
Hard water contains dissolved calcium and magnesium compounds.
The calcium and magnesium ions react with soap to form scum. This makes it difficult
to form lather with the soap.
Sodium stearate+ Ca2+ +Mg2+ --> Calcium stearate + Magnesium stearate + Na+ ions
The calcium and magnesium ions also form scale in hot water systems and kettles.…read more

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Water Treatment
Water Filter Jugs:
Water passes through filter cartridge containing activated carbon, an ion exchange resin and
Carbon in filter reduces levels of organic impurities such as pesticides and chlorine in the
Ion exchange resin removes calcium, magnesium, lead and copper ions.
Silver discourages growth of bacteria.
Filter cartridge needs to be changed often.…read more

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Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions
Comparing Energy Produced by Fuels
Exothermic reactions produce energy.
Energy change can be measured using a bomb calorimeter by mixing the reactants in an
insulated container and measuring the temperature change of the solution.
Energy in food is measure by burning the foods in a bomb calorimeter.
1 calorie = 4.2 J
Energy Changes in Reactions
Breaking bonds is endothermic
Forming bonds is exothermic
In an energy level diagram:
o For exothermic reactions, products at lower energy level than reactants.…read more

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Tests for Positive Ions
Flame Tests
Element Flame Colour
Lithium Bright red
Sodium Golden yellow
Potassium Lilac
Calcium Brick Red
Barium Green
Sodium Hydroxide Test
Aluminium, calcium and magnesium ions form a white precipitate when sodium hydroxide
solution is added.
The precipitate formed with aluminium ions dissolves in an excess sodium hydroxide solution.
A flame test is then used to distinguish between calcium and magnesium ions as calcium ions
give a brick red flame and magnesium ions give no colour at all.…read more

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When sodium hydroxide is added to a substance containing ammonium ions, ammonia is formed.
When the solution is gently warmed the ammonia becomes a gas which can be detected using damp
red litmus paper. The litmus paper turns blue as ammonia is an alkaline gas.
Tests for Negative Ions
If we add dilute acid to a carbonate it fizzes and produces carbon dioxide gas.
When green copper carbonate is heated, it decomposes to form black copper oxide and
carbon dioxide.…read more


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