C3 The Periodic Table Revision notes

Revision Notes for OCR GCSE Chemistry C3

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Sam Smitheringale
C3 The Periodic Table
Number of Protons Equals Number of Electrons
Atomic Number and Mass Number describe an atom
Isotopes are the same except for an extra neutron or two
Elements consist of one type of atom only
Compounds are chemically bonded
The periodic table is a Table of all known elements
Elements in a group have the same number of outer electrons
Ionic bonding is the swapping of electrons
o A shell with just one electron is try to get rid of
o A nearly full shell tries to get that extra electron
o The extra electron comes from the shell with just one electron
NaCL and MgO form Giant Ionic Lattices
o They have high melting and boiling points
o NaCL dissolves to form a solution that conducts electricity
o They conduct electricity when molten
Group 1 Metals are known as alkali metals
Oxidation is the loss of electrons
Reaction with cold water produces hydrogen gas
Alkali metal compounds burn with characteristic colours.
o Lithium ­ Red
o Sodium ­ Yellow/Orange
o Potassium ­ Lilac
Electrolysis Means splitting up with electricity
Electrolysis removes aluminium from its ore
Cryolite is used to lower the temperature and costs
Electrolysis is very expensive due to the high amount of electricity needed
Covalent bonds Share Electrons
Group 7 elements are known as the halogens
Halogens do both covalent and ionic bonding
Reduction is the gain of electrons
The halogens react with alkali metals to form salts
More reactive halogens will displace less reactive ones
Metals have a crystal structure
Most have high melting and boiling points and high density
They're strong but also bendy and Malleable
They're good conductors of heat and electricity
At very low temperatures some metals are super conductors
Metals in the middle of the periodic table are transition metals
Transition metals and their compounds make good catalysts
Thermal decomposition is breaking down with heat
Precipitation a solid forms in a solution


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