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Disadvantages of hard water Advantages of hard water
It is more difficult to form a lather with soap Some people prefer the taste.

Scum may form in a reaction with soap, wasting Calcium ions in the water are good
the soap for children's teeth and bones.

Limescale (a hard crust)…

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Removing hardness
If we remove calcium (or magnesium) ions from hard water, the water is said to be
softened. It will then form a lather with soap more easily and no scum will be formed. In
the experiment in Fig.3 above, we saw how calcium reacts with soap solution:


Page 3

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2. Ionexchange column
We can also remove the calcium ions from hard water by passing it through an
ionexchange column. The column contains a special resin. As the water passes
through the resin, calcium ions replace sodium ions in the resin and the water is


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