C3 Hard Water Revision notes

Just some revision notes I made on hard water, thought of sharing it if anyone needs notes on this area, hope it's helpful!

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  • Created by: kayleey
  • Created on: 14-05-13 17:03
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Disadvantages of hard water Advantages of hard water
It is more difficult to form a lather with soap Some people prefer the taste.
Scum may form in a reaction with soap, wasting Calcium ions in the water are good
the soap for children's teeth and bones.
Limescale (a hard crust) forms inside kettles.
This wastes energy whenever you boil water and
It helps to reduce heart disease.
could also damage the appliance, therefore you'd
have to spend more money
Hot water pipes 'fur up'. Limescale starts to coat
Some brewers prefer using hard
the inside of the pipes which can eventually get
water for making beer.
blocked up.
A coating of limescale inside
Financial problems can be caused as a result of copper pipes, or especially old
hard water lead pipes, stops poisonous salts
dissolving into water.
Hard water

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Removing hardness
If we remove calcium (or magnesium) ions from hard water, the water is said to be
softened. It will then form a lather with soap more easily and no scum will be formed. In
the experiment in Fig.3 above, we saw how calcium reacts with soap solution:
If we add enough soap, all the calcium ions are removed from solution as a
precipitate of scum, and the water becomes soft. However, this would waste soap.…read more

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Ionexchange column
We can also remove the calcium ions from hard water by passing it through an
ionexchange column. The column contains a special resin. As the water passes
through the resin, calcium ions replace sodium ions in the resin and the water is
softened.…read more


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