C3 Exhaustive Revision Notes

These are my exhaustive revision notes for Chemistry Unit 3 of the GCSE Further Additional Science / GCSE Chemistry syllabus for Edexcel.

I have used multiple textbooks as well as internet sources to compile these notes, and whilst I was compiling them, I actively kept the syllabus at hand, so hopefully there is nothing beyond these notes which is essential knowledge in order to answer any question on the exam paper (I would promise, but I know everyone's liable to human error!).

I hope that you may find these notes useful :)

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There are two types of chemical analysis:qualitative analysis, which investigates which elements and compounds
are present in a sample, and quantitative analysis, which measures the amount of the aforementioned elements
and compounds which are present in said sample.

Chemical analysis is used principally in two industries: in the w
ater…

Page 2

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Chlorid
Cl-
White
e
Bromid
Br-
Cream
e
Iodide I-
Yellow

Sodium , potassium, calcium and copper cations can be tested for using a flame test .A nichrome wire is dipped
into a concentrated acid such as hydrochloric acid and held in a flame until only a light orange colour…

Page 3

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Ca(HCO3)2(aq)-> CaCO3(s)+ CO2(g)+ H2O(l)


The greatest disadvantage of softening temporary hard water through the thermal decomposition of the
calcium hydrogen carbonate is the formation of solid calcium carbonate, which can itself dissolve into water to
render it harder.Calcium carbonate is also the major component of limescale, the accumulation of which…

Page 4

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mol/dm3
= moles / dm3



abbreviated to c = n x V

In order to convert from mol/dm3
to
g/dm3
, a formula triangle akin to the one between

mass,moles and relative
formula mass can be used:

mass-concentration = mole-concentration x relative formula mass

g/dm3
= mol/dm3

x M

r…

Page 5

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The process is different for the preparation of soluble salts from a soluble reactant ( alkalis). Unlike in the
preparation from bases , there is no visible indication with alkalis of when the acid has been completely reacted
because alkalis are not insoluble, so no s
olids accumulate.

Titration must…

Page 6

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current is necessary as otherwise the ionic compound would be separated intermittently, with the electrolysis
therefore being futile as no ionswould be `permanently attracted to the e
lectrodes.

When the direct current is active, the positively-charged cation in the ionic compound is attracted to the
negatively-charged cathode and the negatively-charged…

Page 7

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Sodium chloride
Hydrogen Chloride
solution
Copper chloride solution Copper Chloride
Copper sulphate
Copper Oxygen
solution
Sodium sulphate
Hydrogen Oxygen
solution
Molten lead bromide Lead Bromide

Electrolysis can be used for copper purification when copper sulphate solution is electrolysed with copper
electrodes .

The anode begins as a huge lump of…

Page 8

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both directions but at exactly the same rate, so that the amounts of reactants and products at any one time
are the same. The concentrations of each side are also constant.

Note that there does not necessarily need to be a 50/50 balance of reactants and products in a dynamic…

Page 9

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The nitrogen used in the Haber Process is extracted from the air the hydrogen used in the Haber Process is
instead obtained from natural gas . The forward reaction i
sexothermic .

In the Haber Process , the hydrogen and nitrogen are fed into a mixer at a ratio of…

Page 10

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Alkanes only contain single bonds between carbon atoms they are said to be saturated for this reason. Alkenes
contain at least one double bond between two carbon atoms they are thus instead said to be unsaturated .




Homologous General
Suffix Functional group
series formula
Alkanes -ane C-C Cn H
2n+2…

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