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Metals and alloys

Metals have many uses, but first, they must be extracted
(taken out) of their ores
An ore is a rock containing enough of a metal or metal
compound to make it economically worth extracting

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Aluminium is a reactive metal and requires a lot of energy
to extract it from its ore bauxite
This is done by electrolysis


Iron requires less energy and is extracted from its ore
using a blast furnace (heated with carbon to a very high


Copper is…

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lump of impure copper. Copper
atoms supply electrons
to this electrode and
become copper ions
which enter the
solution. The lump of impure
copper becomes smaller.
Cu(s) Cu + (aq) + 2e
4. Anode sludge this is the
undissolved remains of the lump
of impure copper.


Recycling copper uses…

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e.g. Nitinol (nickel and titanium) is used in
unbreakable spectacle frames and infant heart
surgery (here a long thin nitonal wire is passed into a
baby's heart; it remembers it's shape and forms two
spirals at 37 C plugging the hole in the heart)


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