C2D REVISION NOTES

SINGLE SCIENCE, OCR BOARD - HIGHER TIER, CHEMISTRY - C2D

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Metals and alloys
Metals have many uses, but first, they must be extracted
(taken out) of their ores
An ore is a rock containing enough of a metal or metal
compound to make it economically worth extracting

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Aluminium
Aluminium is a reactive metal and requires a lot of energy
to extract it from its ore bauxite
This is done by electrolysis
Iron
Iron requires less energy and is extracted from its ore
using a blast furnace (heated with carbon to a very high
temperature)
Copper
Copper is the least reactive of the three and can be
extracted by heating its ore with carbon
CUCO CuO + CO (thermal decomposition)
then 2CuO + C 2Cu + CO
The impure copper is then purified…read more

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Copper
atoms supply electrons
to this electrode and
become copper ions
which enter the
solution. The lump of impure
copper becomes smaller.
Cu(s) Cu + (aq) + 2e
4. Anode sludge this is the
undissolved remains of the lump
of impure copper.…read more

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Nitinol (nickel and titanium) is used in
unbreakable spectacle frames and infant heart
surgery (here a long thin nitonal wire is passed into a
baby's heart; it remembers it's shape and forms two
spirals at 37 C plugging the hole in the heart)…read more

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