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The structure of the Earth

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The lithosphere is made up of tectonic plates floating on
magma just below the crust
There are two types of plates; oceanic plates and
continental plates
Earthquakes happen where plates meet

Because the plates are moving (about 6cm a year) they can:

Rub sideways against each other
Move away…

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The subducting (sinking) oceanic plate does no move
smoothly' it slips at intervals
When it splits the vibration causes earthquakes

Page 4

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Why the plates move

Heat from the core causes convection currents which
causes the plates to move
When the magma rises through the crust at weak spots it
gushes out as a volcano; producing lava
The lava cools to form igneous rock

Magma and rocks

Magma rises through the Earth's…

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Magma cools and solidifies into igneous rock either after it
comes out of a volcano as lava, or before it even gets to
the surface

We can tell how igneous rock cooled by looking at its crystals:

Igneous rock that cools rapidly (close to the surface) has
small crystals


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