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The lithosphere is made up of tectonic plates floating on
magma just below the crust
There are two types of plates; oceanic plates and
continental plates
Earthquakes happen where plates meet
Because the plates are moving (about 6cm a year) they can:
Collide
Rub sideways against each other
Move away from each other
Destructive boundaries
The mantle is hard and rigid near the surface of the
Earth and non-rigid near the Earth's cores
The mantle is solid at all times, but at greater depths it…read more

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The subducting (sinking) oceanic plate does no move
smoothly' it slips at intervals
When it splits the vibration causes earthquakes…read more

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Why the plates move
Heat from the core causes convection currents which
causes the plates to move
When the magma rises through the crust at weak spots it
gushes out as a volcano; producing lava
The lava cools to form igneous rock
Magma and rocks
Magma rises through the Earth's crust because it is less
dense than the crust…read more

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Magma cools and solidifies into igneous rock either after it
comes out of a volcano as lava, or before it even gets to
the surface
We can tell how igneous rock cooled by looking at its crystals:
Igneous rock that cools rapidly (close to the surface) has
small crystals
Igneous rock that cools slowly (further from the surface
and better insulated) has large crystals
If the lava is iron-rich, it is runny
and reasonably `safe'; it cools to form basalt and gabbro
If the lava…read more

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