C2 Rocks and Metals Revision Notes

Revision Notes for OCR GCSE Chemistry C2

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Sam Smitheringale
C2 Rocks and Metals
Pigments give paints there colour
Paints are colloids
Some paints are water based and some are oil based
Dyes are used to colour fabrics
Thermo chromic paints change colour when heated
Phosphorescent pigments glow in the dark
Aluminium and iron are extracted from ores in rocks
Glass is made by melting limestone sand and soda
Bricks are made from clay
Limestone and Clay are Heated to make cement
Extracting rocks can cause environmental damage
o Quarrying uses up land and destroys habitats
o Transporting rocks causes noise and pollution
o Waste causes unsightly tips
o Disused sites can be dangerous
Electrolysis is used to obtain very pure copper
Recycling copper saves money and resources
An allow is a mixture of a metal and other elements
Steel is an alloy of Iron and Carbon
Brass, Bronze, Solder and Amalgam are also alloys
Smart alloys can go back to their original shape when heated up
Iron and Steel corrode much more than aluminium
Metamorphic Rocks are formed from other rocks
Igneous rocks are formed from fresh magma
Sedimentary rocks are formed through extreme pressure
Crust, Mantle, Outer and Inner core form the earth
The lithosphere is the core and the upper mantle
The Earth's surface is made up of large plates of rock
Evidence of plate tectonics are:
o Jigsaw fit
o Matching fossils
o Identical rock sequences
o Living creatures
Volcanoes are formed by Molten rock
Oceanic and continental crusts colliding causes volcanoes
Volcanic activity forms igneous rock
Atmospheric Evolution:
o Volcanoes gave out steam and CO2
o Green plants evolved and produced oxygen
o Ozone layers allows evolution of complex animals
o Today's atmosphere is just right for us
Carbon is constantly being recycled
Human activity affects the composition of Air
Acid rain is caused by sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen

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Sam Smitheringale
Acid rain kills fish, trees and statues
Oxides of Nitrogen also cause photochemical smog
Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas
It is important that atmospheric pollution is controlled
More collisions increase the rate of reaction
o Increasing the Temperature
o Increasing the concentration
o Increasing the surface area (SA), by having smaller particles
o A CATALYST increases the number of successful collisions
Faster collisions also increase the rate of reaction
o Faster collisions are ONLY caused by increasing the temperature…read more

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