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C2


Structure and Bonding
Atomic structure:
Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons.
Protons and electrons have equal and opposite electric charges. Protons
are positively charged, and electrons are negatively charged.
Atoms are arranged in the periodic table in order of their atomic
number.
Neutrons have no electric…

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Structures and properties:
Ionic compounds:
It takes a lot of energy to break the bonds which hold a giant ionic
lattice together. So ionic compounds have very high melting points ­
they are all solids at room temperature.
Ionic compounds will conduct electricity when we melt them or dissolve
them…

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How much?
Mass Numbers:
The relative mass of protons and neutrins is 1
The mass number of an atom tells you the total number of protons and
neutrons in its nucleus.
Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of
neutrons.
Masses of atoms and moles:
We compare…

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Rates of reaction:
How fast?
Knowing and controlling the rate of chemical reactions is important in
living cells, in the laboratory and in industry.
We can measure the rate of a reaction by following the rate at which
reactants are used up. Alternatively, we can measure the rate at which…

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Energy and reactions:
Exothermic and endothermic reactions:
Energy may be transferred to or from the reacting substances in a
hemical reaction.
A reaction where energy is transferred from the reacting substances is
called an exothermic reaction
A reaction where energy is transferred to the reacting substances is
called an endothermic…

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Electrolysis:
The basics:
Electrolysis is splitting up a substance using electricity
Ionic substances can be electrolysed when they are molten or in
solution.
In electrolysis, positive ions move to the cathode, and negative ions
move to the anode.
Changes at the electrodes:
In electrolysis, the ions move towards the oppositely…

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Acids, alkalis and salts:
Acids and alkalis:
Acids are substances that produce H+ ions in water
Bases neutralise acids
And alkali is a soluble base, which produces OH- iond when we add them
to water.
Acids are pH 0-6. Alkali are pH 8-14
Making salts from metals or bases:
Acid…

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