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Synthetic: Manmade and Pungent: Strong smell
Onions and Garlic strong smell; Rose and Honeysuckle sweet smells; Pine trees to
disinfect (Destroy bacteria)
Oil from roses can be distilled to make perfume. Perfumes are natural sources.
A similar perfume can be made synthetically. Chemicals boiled to make an ester have the
Evaporates: Particles reach the nose
Non- toxic Does not poison
No reaction with water. Does not react with perspiration.
Does not irritate the skin so can be put on the skin.
Insoluble in water so perfume is not washed off the skin.
How we can smell: Scented flower gas goes into your nose sensors in the lining pick up a
scent signal sent to your brain
How to make a perfume
To make a perfume a chemical called ester is made.
Organic Acid + alcohol ester + water
methanol + butanoic acid methyl butanoate + water (synthetic ester, example)
A little sulfuric acid is needed as
Make sure I know the process of
making an ester.
Acid added to alcohol heated
Condenser stops gas from escaping. Helps cool down again so it can react
Condenser allows the reaction to go on for longer
Volatile Liquids/Kinetic energy of particles
Liquid evaporates Volatile
Weak attraction between liquid particles less kinetic energy weakly attracted to each
other so the forces of attraction between molecules easy to overcome
Particles with lots of energy can escape the attraction to other molecules
Escape surface of the liquid becoming gas particles
Gas particles high kinetic energy and move rapidly
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Thoroughly tested to make sure they are safe for human use:
Not cause rashes or itchiness, skin damage, lead to cancer, life threatening conditions
Cosmetic testing on Animals EU banned because of animals suffering
However, cosmetic ingredients with medical uses must still be tested on animals.
Animal testing is carried out to ensure that ingredients are safe to use.
New medical drugs have to be tested to ensure they work and are safe before they can be prescribed.…read more