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Page 1

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Making crude oil useful

The Greeks were the first people to use crude oil
They made a mixture of oil, sodium nitrate and quicklime
which burst into flames when it hit the water
They used this ` Greek fire ' in their sea battles

Page 2

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However the true value of crude oil has only been realised
in the last 100 years

Crude oil, coal and natural gas are all fossil fuels


Coal is the remains of dead plants and trees, which died
millions of years ago
They fell into swaps and were covered in…

Page 3

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Crude oil

Crude oil is the remains of tiny sea plants and animals
which died and fell to the sea bed
Eventually over millions of years, layer upon layer of
sediment covered the remains of the animals and plants
The weight of the sediments subjected the layers of
animals and…

Page 4

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Fossil fuels

Because the fossil fuels take millions of years to form and
require special anaerobic ( no oxygen ) conditions our
supplies will eventually run out so fossil fuels are non
renewable ( will run out and cannot be used again )
Coal, oil and gas are sources of…

Page 5

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Extracting crude oil

Crude oil has to be drilled out of the ground deep under
the sea or desserts
It then has to be transported to a refinery
The costs of drilling and transporting are extremely high
Drilling on land causes environmental pollution and leakage
from oil tankers are sea…

Page 6

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Fractional distillation

Crude oil is a useless mixture of very useful things
It is refined by fractional distillation which splits it into its
useful fractions

Fractional distillation is the process by which a mixture of
liquids are separated by boiling and condensing because each
fraction has a different boiling range…

Page 7

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We distilled crude oil substitute into its various fractions

Fraction 1 2 3 4 5 6
Boiling rate Low
Colour Clear
Runniness Runny


Flammability Easy
to light
to light
Smokiness Clean

Crude oil is a mixture of chemicals called…

Page 8

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Supply and demand

In any barrel of oil there are set percentages of each

Fraction Approximate % in Approximate %
crude oil demand
Refinery gas 2 4
Gasoline ( petrol ) 20 27
Kerosene 13 7
Diesel oil 17 24
Fuel oil and 48 38

The demand for…

Page 9

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Cracking is the process where long chain hydrocarbons are split
into smaller ones by using heat and a catalyst. An unsaturated
product is formed

Unsaturated means containing at least one carbon to carbon
double bonds.

Paraffin can be cracked in the lab using heat and
aluminium oxide catalyst



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