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Slide 1

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Atoms are made up of the nucleus (containing Protons and
Neutrons) and the shells of electrons!
· The mass number is the number of protons and neutrons.
· The atomic number is the number of protons.
· A element consists of one type of atom only.
· When different elements react the form chemical bonds a.k.a
compounds.
· Mixtures are a mixture of elements that are not chemically
bonded together. They are easily separated because there is
no bond.
· Thermal Decomposition is using heat to break down a
substance.
· Iron Ore, Coke, Limestone and Oxygen are the four things
that go into the blast furnace.
· Reduction is the loss of oxygen and Oxidation is the addition
of oxygen.
· The four stages of the reaction of Limestone (CaCo3):
· Heat it and Carbon Dioxide is given off. (quicklime CaO)
· Water is added. (Calcium Hydroxide Ca(OH)2)
· It is now filtered. (Calcium Hydroxide Solution)
· Add Carbon Dioxide!…read more

Slide 2

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Crude Oil is separated by fractional distillation.
· The compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons, they
only contain hydrogen and carbon atoms. Most of the
ones in crude oil are alkanes.
· The formula for a alkane is CnH2n+2.
· Hydrocarbons have different boiling points, and can
be either solid, liquid or gas at room temperature.
· Small hydrocarbons with only a few carbon atoms have
low boiling points and are gases.
· Large hydrocarbons with many carbon atoms have high
boiling points and are solids.
· Metals can be extracted in three ways : electrolysis,
with carbon or carbon monoxide or by various
chemical reactions. Depending on their reactivity one
of these methods is used.
· A alloy is a mixture of two or more elements, where at
least one element is a metal.
· Pure iron is too soft for many uses and easily shaped,
because its atoms are arranged in a regular way that
lets layers of atoms slide over each other.
· low carbon steel- (iron alloyed with) about 0.25 per
cent carbon.
· high carbon steel- (iron alloyed with) up to 2.5 per
cent.
· Stainless steel- (iron alloyed with) chromium and
nickel.
· Common properties of Transition Metals are that
they: form coloured compounds, are good conductors
of heat and electricity, can be hammered or bent into
shape easily, and are less reactive than alkali metals.
· Extraction: aluminium and titanium cannot be
extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon.
It is expensive because the process needs a lot of
electrical energy and lots of stages.…read more

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