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Carbon and hydrogen atoms.

The formula for alkanes is CnH2n+2

They are saturated.

They are unreactive, apart from oxygen during combustion.

Different hydrocarbons have different boiling points.

Smaller hydrocarbons; lower boiling point, easier to ignite, more volatile, flow easier when
compared to larger hydrocarbons.

Distillation can be

Page 2

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water vapour, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, particle, sulphur dioxide.

Fractional Distillation
Hot at the bottom, cool at the top.

Substances with high boiling points
condense at the bottom, with low
boiling points condense at the top.

Crude oil is evaporated and its
substances condense at different
temperatures up the fractioning…

Page 3

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Limestone is mainly calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
When is heated it breaks down to form calcium oxide + carbon dioxide.
Calcium oxide + water =calcium hydroxide.

Thermal Decomposition
calcium carbonate calcium oxide + carbon dioxide (CaCO3 CaO + CO2 )


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The main advantages and disadvantages of the limestone industry

Advantages Disadvantages

Limestone is a valuable natural resource, used to make Limestone quarries are visible from long distances
things such as glass and concrete. and may permanently disfigure the local

Limestone quarrying provides employment Quarrying is a heavy industry that…

Page 5

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Pure iron is soft and easily shaped, because their atoms slide over each other.
Iron from the blast furnace is an alloy, containing 96% iron with carbon and
some other impurities. It is hard an brittle, so the iron is converted into steel by
removing the carbon.


Page 6

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The transition metals have these properties in common:
They are metals.
They form coloured
They are good conductors of
heat and electricity.
They can be hammered
or bent into shape easily.
They are less reactive than
alkali metals such as sodium,
they have higher melting
points - but mercury…

Page 7

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The earth crust contains metals and metal compounds such as gold, iron
oxide and aluminium oxide.
A metal ore is a rock containing metal or a metal compound in high
amounts to make it economically efficient to extract.
The method to extract depends on their reactivity.
Carbon hydrogen
Potassium zinc…

Page 8

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Rows = Period The atomic mass on these increase.

The alkali (group 1) metals are very reactive metals.

The Halogens (group 7) are very reactive no-metals
Chemical bonds involve electrons from the reacting atoms. Bonds can form when:
electrons are transferred from one atom to another, so that one atom…


lisa linsdell


Very useful revision notes for this module. Notes are accompanied by appropriate diagrams.



wowie brian cox would approve 

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