C1a revision notes

Just some revsion notes that I made fore C1a, I hope you might find them useful :)

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  • Created by: Jess
  • Created on: 02-01-13 12:50
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Carbon and hydrogen atoms.
The formula for alkanes is CnH2n+2
They are saturated.
They are unreactive, apart from oxygen during combustion.
Different hydrocarbons have different boiling points.
Smaller hydrocarbons; lower boiling point, easier to ignite, more volatile, flow easier when
compared to larger hydrocarbons.
Distillation can be
used to separate
substances like
ethanol and water.
The mixture is heated,
until the substance
with the lower boiling
point evaporates. It is
then passed along a
cooling tube, where it
condenses and
becomes a liquid.
Heated evaprorates cooled condenses
Complete Combustion: Incomplete Combustion:
when fuels burn they react with oxygen. if there is insufficient air.
Hydrogen + oxygen = H20 Hydrogen + oxygen = H20
Carbon + oxygen = carbon dioxide carbon + oxygen = carbon dioxide
Hydrocarbon + oxygen = water = carbon dioxide. Soot and smoke are also
These gases are released in the combustion of fuels.

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Fractional Distillation
Hot at the bottom, cool at the top.
Substances with high boiling points
condense at the bottom, with low
boiling points condense at the top.
Crude oil is evaporated and its
substances condense at different
temperatures up the fractioning
column. Each fraction contains
different hydrocarbon molecules,
with similar number of carbon
Hydrocarbons with small molecules
make better fuels than
hydrocarbons with large molecules.…read more

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Limestone is mainly calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
When is heated it breaks down to form calcium oxide + carbon dioxide.
Calcium oxide + water =calcium hydroxide.
Thermal Decomposition
calcium carbonate calcium oxide + carbon dioxide (CaCO3 CaO + CO2 )
Carbon dioxide can be detected using lime water, which will turn cloudy.
Metals high up in the reactivity series, need more energy to decompose.
Quicklime + Slaked lime
Calcium oxide = quicklime.…read more

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The main advantages and disadvantages of the limestone industry
Advantages Disadvantages
Limestone is a valuable natural resource, used to make Limestone quarries are visible from long distances
things such as glass and concrete. and may permanently disfigure the local
Limestone quarrying provides employment Quarrying is a heavy industry that creates noise
opportunities that support the local economy in towns and heavy traffic, which damages people's quality
around the quarry. of life.
Advantages and disadvantages of different building materials.…read more

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Pure iron is soft and easily shaped, because their atoms slide over each other.
Iron from the blast furnace is an alloy, containing 96% iron with carbon and
some other impurities. It is hard an brittle, so the iron is converted into steel by
removing the carbon.
Carbon is removed by blowing oxygen into the molten metal, it reacts and
produced carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, which escapes. Sometimes
other metals are added like vanadium and chromium.…read more

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The transition metals have these properties in common:
They are metals.
They form coloured
They are good conductors of
heat and electricity.
They can be hammered
or bent into shape easily.
They are less reactive than
alkali metals such as sodium,
they have higher melting
points - but mercury is a
liquid at room temperature
-and they arehard and
They have high densities.
Copper is a transition metal. Its properties include: soft, easily bent and is a good conductor
of electricity.…read more

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The earth crust contains metals and metal compounds such as gold, iron
oxide and aluminium oxide.
A metal ore is a rock containing metal or a metal compound in high
amounts to make it economically efficient to extract.
The method to extract depends on their reactivity.
Carbon hydrogen
Potassium zinc copper
Sodium iron silver
calcium tin gold
magnesium lead platinum
Making iron
In the blat furnace: some irons contain iron oxide. The oxygen must be
removed.…read more

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Rows = Period The atomic mass on these increase.
The alkali (group 1) metals are very reactive metals.
The Halogens (group 7) are very reactive no-metals
Chemical bonds involve electrons from the reacting atoms. Bonds can form when:
electrons are transferred from one atom to another, so that one atom gives electrons
and the other takes electrons, (IONIC)
electrons are shared between two atoms.…read more


lisa linsdell

Very useful revision notes for this module. Notes are accompanied by appropriate diagrams.


wowie brian cox would approve 

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