C1a Revision

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1.1 Atoms, elements and compounds
Elements are made up of one type of atom.
When elements react their atoms join atoms of other elements.
Atoms form chemical bonds by losing, gaining or sharing a small number of
Compounds contain the atoms of two+ elements bonded together.
1.2 Limestone and it's uses
Limestone is used
As a building material (and)
Limestone = CaCO3
Thermal decomposition of limestone makes quicklime (Calcium Oxide (CaO)) and
carbon dioxide (CO2)
Calcium Carbonate Calcium Oxide + Carbon Dioxide
1.3 Decomposing Carbonates
Carbonates of metals decompose when heated to produce the metal oxide and
Potassium and Sodium Carbonates don't decompose with a Bunsen burner flame.
In a chemical reaction the mass of the reactants is equal to the mass of the
Atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions.
1.4 Quicklime and Slaked Lime
Quicklime (Calcium Oxide) reacts with water to produce slaked lime (Calcium
Calcium Hydroxide is only slightly soluble in water but it dissolves to form
Calcium Hydroxide reacts with Carbon Dioxide to form Calcium Carbonate, which
is insoluble in water.
Mortar is used to hold stone and bricks together in building. Lime mortar is created
by mixing slaked lime with sand and adding water.
When CO2 reacts with CaOH in the mortar CaCO3 is formed and is set hard.
1.5 Cement, Concrete and Glass
To make cement:
Limestone is mixed with clay
Heated strongly
The product is powdered.

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Mortar is made with cement. Sand is stronger which means that it sets faster
than lime mortar. It will set in wet conditions, even underwater.
A mixture of cement, sand, stones or crushed rock and water is called `concrete'.
Concrete can be reinforced by pouring it around steel.
Glass is made from limestone, sand and sodium carbonate.
Glass is used to allow light into buildings and make them weatherproof.
The properties of these materials can be modified for specific uses.…read more

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Properties of Irons and Steels
Pure iron:
Is a soft metal.
Bends easily.
Has a regular arrangement of atoms.
Atoms are in layers so they slide easily over each other.
Alloys of iron.
Mixtures that contain other elements as well as iron.
The other elements change the regular structure of the metal.
This changes the properties.
Carbon Steels:
Contain Small amounts of carbon, up to 1.5%.
Increasing the amount of carbon makes the steel harder and more brittle.…read more

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Aluminium is soft with quite a low melting point but can be hardened by alloying.
Aluminium and sodium are too reactive to extract with carbon and so electrolysis is
used with high energy costs.
Aluminium is used widely in:
Cooking Foil.
Electricity Cables.
Titanium reacts with carbon and is extracted by displacement with a reactive
Titanium is used in:
Jet Engines.
Nuclear Reactors.
Replacement for hip joints
Extracting these metals is expensive because it involves electrolysis and high
temperatures.…read more

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Cleaner Fuels
CO2 is a greenhouse gas. It reduces the amount of heat lost from the Earth and
contributes to global warming.
Particulates cause health problems and global dimming by reflecting sunlight
away from the Earth.
Sulphur dioxide dissolves in water and forms acid rain.
The amount of sulphur dioxide released can be reduced by removing sulphur
compounds from fuels at a refinery or after burning.
Plants can provide sugars to make ethanol, or produce oils that can be used as
biodiesel.…read more



Very helpful. Just one question, where are the test q's answer?

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