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1.1 Atoms, elements and compounds

Elements are made up of one type of atom.
When elements react their atoms join atoms of other elements.
Atoms form chemical bonds by losing, gaining or sharing a small number of
Compounds contain the atoms of two+ elements bonded together.

1.2 Limestone…

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Mortar is made with cement. Sand is stronger which means that it sets faster
than lime mortar. It will set in wet conditions, even underwater.
A mixture of cement, sand, stones or crushed rock and water is called `concrete'.
Concrete can be reinforced by pouring it around steel.
Glass is…

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2.3 Properties of Irons and Steels

Pure iron:
Is a soft metal.
Bends easily.
Has a regular arrangement of atoms.
Atoms are in layers so they slide easily over each other.
Alloys of iron.
Mixtures that contain other elements as well as iron.
The other elements change the regular…

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Aluminium is soft with quite a low melting point but can be hardened by alloying.
Aluminium and sodium are too reactive to extract with carbon and so electrolysis is
used with high energy costs.
Aluminium is used widely in:
Cooking Foil.
Electricity Cables.
Titanium reacts with carbon…

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Most of the compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons and many of these are
alkanes, with the general formula CnH2n+2.
Hydrocarbons are compounds of Carbon and Hydrogen only.
Alkanes contain as many hydrogen atoms as possible, so we call them saturated
A molecular formula that shows the number of…

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3.4 Cleaner Fuels

CO2 is a greenhouse gas. It reduces the amount of heat lost from the Earth and
contributes to global warming.
Particulates cause health problems and global dimming by reflecting sunlight
away from the Earth.
Sulphur dioxide dissolves in water and forms acid rain.
The amount of sulphur…



Very helpful. Just one question, where are the test q's answer?

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