C1 - Broken down notes(Foundation - AQA)

Here's a broken down version of the Science A. Sorry if there's any typos, as I've quickly written them.

I've missed out some parts also due to I thought they were not worth writing them

Free to use however don't repost as it took me 5 long hours of tying these up :)

Commet if I've helped in any way/make it better! 

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  • Created by: chloeyay
  • Created on: 24-05-14 14:33

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Chemistry Revision
1.1 - Atoms, elements and compounds

Each element is made up with one type of atom
Each atom is made up of a symbol(For example: NA for the atom Sodium)
Elements are represented in groups, the elements have similar properties
The groups are: Alkaline earth metals, alkali metals,…

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Attract each other strongly and the compound forms Ionic bonds

The positive and
negative equal the same
and balance each other
Meaning this is a
balanced compound

When non-metals combine, their atoms share electrons
Forms covalent bonds

This is how a water molecule was formed
It has two hydrogen…

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Metal carbonates decompose to metal oxide and carbon dioxide when heated
A bunion burner, wouldn't melt sodium or potassium carbonate for example
When reacted with acid = salt, water and carbon dioxide gas
Limestone is damaged in acid rain because calcium reacts with the acid in the rain

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Steels are alloys (A mixture of metals, and sometimes non-metals)
because it's a mix of other elements.
Alloys can be used ­ have different properties for specific uses

3.3 ­ Aluminium and titanium


Low density
Resistant to corrosion
More reactive than carbon
Pure aluminium isn't strong however alloy aluminium…

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Most compounds of crude oil are hydrocarbons
Molecules only contain hydrogen and carbon
Many hydrocarbons are alkanes which contains as many hydrogen atoms as possible

4.2 ­ Fractional distillation

Crude oil is separated into fractions
This can be done at boiling point of hydrocarbon
The larger of the molecule =…

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During cracking thermal decomposition reactions produce a mixer of small molecules

5.2 ­ Making polymers from alkenes

Polymers are made from many small molecules joined together
Small molecules are used to be called monomers
The reaction to make a polymer = polymerisation
Other alkenes can polymerise in a similar way…

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6.4 ­ Food Issues

Benefits of using vegetable oils and Drawbacks of using vegetable oils and
emulsifiers in foods emulsifiers in foods
High in energy Animal fats contain saturated fats which are
linked to heart disease
Contains important nutrients Emulsifiers taste good so you want to want
to eat more…

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Early atmosphere was mainly Carbon Dioxide/some water vapour
Also believe there was nitrogen ­ possibly methane/ammonia
Next two billion years, bacteria/algae/plants evolved
Algae/plants used carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and released oxygen
Number of plants increased = more oxygen/less carbon dioxide

7.4 ­ Life on Earth

Plants that produced the oxygen…


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