C1 - Broken down notes(Foundation - AQA)

Here's a broken down version of the Science A. Sorry if there's any typos, as I've quickly written them.

I've missed out some parts also due to I thought they were not worth writing them

Free to use however don't repost as it took me 5 long hours of tying these up :)

Commet if I've helped in any way/make it better! 

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  • Created by: chloeyay
  • Created on: 24-05-14 14:33
Preview of C1 -  Broken down notes(Foundation - AQA)

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Chemistry Revision
1.1 - Atoms, elements and compounds
Each element is made up with one type of atom
Each atom is made up of a symbol(For example: NA for the atom Sodium)
Elements are represented in groups, the elements have similar properties
The groups are: Alkaline earth metals, alkali metals, transition metals, gases and
Compounds are formed when two or more elements are combined together
1.2- Atomic Structure
Atoms have two particle: Protons and Neutrons
Electrons and Protons equal the same(For example if a Proton was +1, an Electron
would be -1)
Atoms have NO charge
The atomic number = the proton number
Mass number = Protons + Neutrons
1.3 - The arrangement of electrons in atoms
Each electron is an energy level(the Atomic
number) which are represented by shells
The first level of the shell can hold 2
The second level of the shell can hold 8
For example oxygen has the atomic number of 8.
I'd add 2 on the first level and 6 on the second level
to make 8
Elements on the same group will have the
same amount of electrons in their highest
energy level.
EG: Group 1 electrons will have 1 electron(s) in their highest energy level(the last
1.4 - Forming bonds
Different elements = compounds
Metal + Non Metal = Ions are lost
Metal atoms lose electrons to gain positive ions
Non-metal atoms gain electrons to form negative ions

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Attract each other strongly and the compound forms Ionic bonds
The positive and
negative equal the same
and balance each other
Meaning this is a
balanced compound
When non-metals combine, their atoms share electrons
Forms covalent bonds
This is how a water molecule was formed
It has two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen
Covalent bonds can be shown as lines drawn together
2.…read more

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Metal carbonates decompose to metal oxide and carbon dioxide when heated
A bunion burner, wouldn't melt sodium or potassium carbonate for example
When reacted with acid = salt, water and carbon dioxide gas
Limestone is damaged in acid rain because calcium reacts with the acid in the rain
Because of this, limewater is to test to carbon dioxide
2.…read more

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Steels are alloys (A mixture of metals, and sometimes non-metals)
because it's a mix of other elements.
Alloys can be used ­ have different properties for specific uses
3.3 ­ Aluminium and titanium
Low density
Resistant to corrosion
More reactive than carbon
Pure aluminium isn't strong however alloy aluminium has many uses
Resistant to corrosion and very strong
3.4 ­ Extracting copper
Solutions of copper compounds can be reacted with metal which is more reactive
Copper can be also extracted
3.…read more

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Most compounds of crude oil are hydrocarbons
Molecules only contain hydrogen and carbon
Many hydrocarbons are alkanes which contains as many hydrogen atoms as possible
4.…read more

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During cracking thermal decomposition reactions produce a mixer of small molecules
5.2 ­ Making polymers from alkenes
Polymers are made from many small molecules joined together
Small molecules are used to be called monomers
The reaction to make a polymer = polymerisation
Other alkenes can polymerise in a similar way = propene can form
Many plastics we use: bags, bottles, containers and toys are made from alkenes
5.…read more

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­ Food Issues
Benefits of using vegetable oils and Drawbacks of using vegetable oils and
emulsifiers in foods emulsifiers in foods
High in energy Animal fats contain saturated fats which are
linked to heart disease
Contains important nutrients Emulsifiers taste good so you want to want
to eat more
Unsaturated fats are better for your health However some can be high in fat
than saturated ones
Emulsifiers stop oils and water separating Meaning you're more likely to become
into layers ­ makes food smother obese(and…read more

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Early atmosphere was mainly Carbon Dioxide/some water vapour
Also believe there was nitrogen ­ possibly methane/ammonia
Next two billion years, bacteria/algae/plants evolved
Algae/plants used carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and released oxygen
Number of plants increased = more oxygen/less carbon dioxide
7.4 ­ Life on Earth
Plants that produced the oxygen evolved from simple
But we don't know how they were formed
Because of lack of evidence
7.…read more


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