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C 1
­ Product
s f
rom
rocks
and
oil
s,
ear
th
and
atmospher
e
Rocks
and
Met
als


Ext
ract
ing
Met
als
Metals are found in the Earth's crust. We find most metals combined with
other chemical elements, often oxygen. This means that the metal must be…

Page 2

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The iron produced by a blast furnace is called pig iron. It is about 96 per cent iron with carbon and some
other impurities. It is hard, but too brittle for most uses. So, most iron from the blast furnace is
converted into steel by removing some of the carbon.…

Page 3

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Pure gold is very soft so we add other elements to it to make it hard. For jewellery we add either
copper or silver to it. By varying the proportions of the two metals we can get different colour of
`gold'. Some can be red, yellow or even green.
Aluminium…

Page 4

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The smaller chain of hydrocarbon is more runny. It isn't as viscous as the longer chains of hydrocarbon.
The smaller chain of hydrocarbon is more flammable.
At room temperature, small hydrocarbons are gases, the ones in with between five or twelve carbon
atoms are liquids, and large hydrocarbons are solids.…

Page 5

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Pl
ant
oi
ls

Vegetable oils are obtained from plants. They are important ingredients in many foods, and can be hardened
through a chemical process to make, for example, margarine. They can also be used as fuels, for example
as biodiesel.

Ext
ract
ing
veget
abl
e oi
ls

Some…

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What
i
s added
to
our
f
ood?
Substances added to foods to improve its appearance, flavor and texture and keeping qualities are called
additives. Additives may be natural products or synthetic chemicals.
Some substances like salt, vinegar and sugar have been used for hundreds of years. There are six…

Page 7

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St
ruct
ure
of
ear
th
The Earth is almost a sphere. These are its main layers, starting
with the outermost:
crust relatively thin and rocky
mantle has the properties of a solid, but can flow very
slowly
outer core made from liquid nickel and iron
inner core made from…

Page 8

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Krypton Used in lasers. Krypton lasers are used by surgeons to treat certain eye problems and to
remove birthmarks.

The
car
bon
cycl
e
The carbon moves into and out of the atmosphere due to plants, the oceans and rocks
The amount of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere has…

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