C1 a Products From Rocks

GCSE, aqa science

p1a and p1b

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C 1
­ Product
s f
rom
rocks
and
oil
s,
ear
th
and
atmospher
e
Rocks
and
Met
als
Ext
ract
ing
Met
als
Metals are found in the Earth's crust. We find most metals combined with
other chemical elements, often oxygen. This means that the metal must be
chemically separated from its compounds before you can use it.
A metal ore contains enough of the metal to make it economically worth
extracting the metal. If the metal is worth extracting depends on:
how easy it is to extract it
how much metal the ore contains
Some metals are so unreactive that they are found in the earth as the metal
themselves. We say that they exist in their native state.
The way in which we extract a metal depends on its place in the reactivity
series.
The reactivity series lists the metals in order of their reactivity most reactive at
the top, the least reactive at the bottom.
Ext
ract
ing
Ir
on
Iron is the second most common metal in the Earth's crust. Iron ore contains iron combined with
oxygen.
We extract iron using a blast furnace. The solid raw materials used to make iron are iron ore
(haematite), coke and limestone.
This is how the blast furnace works:
Hot air is blown into the blast furnace. This makes the coke
burn, which heats the furnace and forms carbon dioxide gas.
Carbon + oxygen carbon dioxide
At the high temperatures in the blast furnace, this carbon
dioxide reacts with more coke to form carbon monoxide gas.
Carbon dioxide + carbon carbon monoxide
The carbon monoxide reacts with the iron oxide, removing its
oxygen, and reducing it to molten iron. This flows to the
bottom of the blast furnace.
Iron oxide + carbon monoxide iron + carbon dioxide
Molten iron is tapped off from the bottom of the blast furnace.
Cast iron is molten iron that has been left to solidify into
moulds. it contains 96% iron. Most iron is kept molten to turn
into steel.
Steel is made by removing more impurities from the iron. We then
mix it with other elements to change its properties
Proper
ti
es
of
ir
on
and
steel
s

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The iron produced by a blast furnace is called pig iron. It is about 96 per cent iron with carbon and some
other impurities. It is hard, but too brittle for most uses. So, most iron from the blast furnace is
converted into steel by removing some of the carbon.
If you remove all of the carbon, you get pure iron. This is too soft to be very useful. This is because its
regular arrangement lets the atoms slide over each other very easily.…read more

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Pure gold is very soft so we add other elements to it to make it hard. For jewellery we add either
copper or silver to it. By varying the proportions of the two metals we can get different colour of
`gold'. Some can be red, yellow or even green.
Aluminium is a metal with a low density it can be alloyed with a wide range of elements. (Over
300 alloys of aluminium). They all have very different properties.…read more

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The smaller chain of hydrocarbon is more runny. It isn't as viscous as the longer chains of hydrocarbon.
The smaller chain of hydrocarbon is more flammable.
At room temperature, small hydrocarbons are gases, the ones in with between five or twelve carbon
atoms are liquids, and large hydrocarbons are solids.
We separate crude oil into fractions using fractional distillation.
It is fed into a tall tower (fractionating tower) as hot vapour.…read more

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Pl
ant
oi
ls
Vegetable oils are obtained from plants. They are important ingredients in many foods, and can be hardened
through a chemical process to make, for example, margarine. They can also be used as fuels, for example
as biodiesel.
Ext
ract
ing
veget
abl
e oi
ls
Some seeds, nuts and fruits are rich in vegetable oils.…read more

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What
i
s added
to
our
f
ood?
Substances added to foods to improve its appearance, flavor and texture and keeping qualities are called
additives. Additives may be natural products or synthetic chemicals.
Some substances like salt, vinegar and sugar have been used for hundreds of years. There are six main
types of additives:
E number Additive What the additive does Example
E1 Colours Improve their appearance of the food.…read more

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St
ruct
ure
of
ear
th
The Earth is almost a sphere. These are its main layers, starting
with the outermost:
crust relatively thin and rocky
mantle has the properties of a solid, but can flow very
slowly
outer core made from liquid nickel and iron
inner core made from solid nickel and iron
The
rest
less
Ear
th
The earth's lithosphere is cracked into a number of pieces called plate tectonics which are constantly
moving.…read more

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Krypton Used in lasers. Krypton lasers are used by surgeons to treat certain eye problems and to
remove birthmarks.…read more

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