C1 A 2

Revision notes on rocks and metals (products of rocks module) for GCSE Chemistry.

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  • Created by: Farah
  • Created on: 12-04-08 15:56
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C1a. ­ Products from rocks
2. Rocks and Metals
C1a 2.1 ­ Extracting metals
Metals are found in the Earth's crust.
We find metals combined with other chemical elements,
often oxygen.
This means that the metal must be chemically separated
from its compounds before you can use it.
A metal ore contains enough of the metal to make it
economically worth extracting the metal.
If the metal is worth extracting depends on:
how easy it is to extract it
how much metal the ore contains
Some metals are so unreactive that they are found in the
earth as the metal themselves. We say that they exist in
their native state.
The way in which we extract a metal depends on its place in
the reactivity series.
The reactivity series lists the metals in order of their
reactivity; most reactive at the top, the least reactive at
the bottom.
C1a 2.2 ­ Extracting iron
Iron is the second most common metal in the Earth's crust.
Iron is found combined with oxygen.
We extract iron using a blast furnace.
The solid raw materials used to make iron are iron ore
(haematite), coke and limestone.
This is how the blast furnace works:
Hot air is blown into the blast furnace. This makes the
coke burn, which heats the furnace and forms carbon
dioxide gas.
Carbon + oxygen carbon dioxide
At the high temperatures in the blast furnace, this
carbon dioxide reacts with more coke to form carbon
monoxide gas.
Carbon dioxide + carbon carbon monoxide
the carbon monoxide reacts with the iron oxide,
removing its oxygen, and reducing it to molten iron.
This flows to the bottom of the blast furnace.
Iron oxide + carbon monoxide iron + carbon dioxide
Molten iron is tapped off from the bottom of the blast

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Cast iron is molten iron that has been left to solidify into
moulds. it contains 96% iron.
Most iron is kept molten to turn into steel.
Steel is made by removing more impurities from the iron.
We then mix it with other elements to change its
C1a 2.3 ­ Properties of iron and steel
Iron produced by a blast furnace is called pig iron.
It is about 96 per cent iron with carbon and some other
impurities.…read more

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Copper, gold and aluminium are too soft for many uses.
Copper is a reddish coloured metal. It conducts heat and
electricity very well. People think it was the first metal to
be used by humans. It is a soft metal.
Bronze was probably the first alloy made by humans. It
contains cooper and tin and sometimes other elements. It
can be used for bearings where we want very low friction.
Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc.…read more

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Aluminium and Titanium are useful because they resist
corrosion and are both dense and light.
They are both expensive because extracting them from their
ores involves man stages and it requires a lot of energy.
It is extracted from its ore using electrolysis.
It is important to use recycle these metals because recycled
aluminium doesn't involve electrolysis to be used again.…read more


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