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Page 1

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Atoms and Atomic structure:


Atoms consi
st
of
elect
rons
surr
ounding
a nucl
eus t
hat cont
ains
prot
ons
and
neutr
ons.
Neut
rons
ar
e neut
ral
,
b ut
pr
otons
and el
ectr
ons ar
e el
ectr
ical
ly
charged.
Prot
ons
have
a…

Page 2

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Reactions and compounds:
New
substances
are f
orme d
by
chemical
react
ions.
When
elements
react
t
ogether
t
o f
orm
c
o mpounds
thei
r
a t
oms
joi
n t
o ot
her
atoms usi
ng chemi
cal
bonds.
For
example,
i
ron
and sul
phur

r…

Page 3

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Equations:

Wh en
eleme nt
s ar
e
joi
ned t
o cause
a
chemical
react
ion,
no atoms ar
e ma de
or l
ost
duri
ng t
h e
pr
oce ss,
but
at
t
h e
end
of
it
they ar
e j
o i
ned di…

Page 4

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Metals:

Metal
s ar
e very
useful
.
O res
are nat
ural
ly
occurr
ing
rocks
that
cont
ain
me t
al
or
me t
a l
compound s
i
n suf
fi
ci
ent amoun t
s t
o ma ke
it
wort
hwhil
e ext
racti
ng…

Page 5

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pl
ati
num
Gold
is
so unr
e act
ive,
i
t
can
be f
ound as
the
nati
ve
metal
and
not
as
a
compound,
so i
t
does
not
need
to be
chemicall
y separ
ated.
However,
chemi
cal
r
eact
ions
ma y
be needed
to
remove…

Page 6

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Raw material Contains Function

i
ron
ore i
ron
oxi
de a
compound
that
cont
ains
ir
on

(
haema t
it
e)

c
o ke car
bon bur
ns
in
air
t
o pr
oduce
heat,
and
react
s t
o f
orm
car
bon
monoxi
de (
needed…

Page 7

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type of steel iron alloyed with properties typical use

l
ow
car
bon
stee a
l bout
0.
25%
car
bon easi
l
y shaped car
body
panel
s

hi
gh
car
bon
stee u
l p
to
2.5%
car
bon har
d cut
ti
ng
tool
s

s
tai…

Page 8

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The
tr
ansi
ti
on
metal
s ar
e f
ound i
n t
he
lar
g e
block
between Groups
2 and
3 i
n t
he
per
iodi
c t
abl
e.
Most
metal
s ar
e
pl
aced her
e,
incl
udi
ng i
ron,
t
it…

Page 9

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Copper:

Copper
is
a tr
ansiti
o n
me tal.
I
t i
s sof
t,
easi
ly
be nt
and
it
i
s a
good
conduct
or of
el
ectrici
ty.
This make s
coppe r
usef
u l
f
or
elect
ri
cal
wir
ing.

Copper does not…

Page 10

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Al
uminium
extr
acti
on i
s expensi
ve because the process needs a lot of electrical energy.

Ti
tani
um ext
ract
ion
is
expensive
because the process involves several stages an d
a l
ot
of
ener
gy.
Thi
s especi
all
y l
i
mits
the uses…

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