Slides in this set
Atom Group 0 or 8 are
Particles that make up all substances. UNREACTIVE
Element They have a full outer shell
A substance made up of only one kind of atom.
A substance made of different types of atoms joined Periodic table arranges
together. elements by
A substance existing of atoms that can be easily ATOMIC NUMBER
separated as they are not joined together. (proton number/the
Max 2 electrons The number of outer shell electrons match the group the element is found in.
E.g. Lithium 2,1 is a group 1 element.
Max 8 electrons Protons and neutrons
both have a mass of 1
Used for building tes n
E.g. 2,8,8 (Argon) LIMESTONE Car mpose
The number of electrons an atom Calcium Carbonate CaCO3 hea + CO 2
has effect the way it reacts = O t with + CO 2
Limewater c r
Rea + wate
Covalent Bonding The test for CO2 (thermal decomposition) lt
= CaO = Sa Each side should also
Non-metals sharing elections Ca(OH)2
weigh the same. Nothing is
lost and nothing extra is
Or Calcium Hydroxide Calcium Oxide
A balanced equation has the same number of
H comes from adding water to CaO Limestone is heated in a atoms of each element on both sides
H C H Good
Rotary Lime Kiln
: Mor You then have Cement or Mortar by Using Molecules: In this equation, the large
H Bad: Q e job
Destr UARRYIN s adding water and sand. number in front of the chemical symbol tells use
Ionic Bonding Woul o y
d you habitats a
G If you add crushed rocks you get the molecules needed.
want nd La Concrete
to live nd e.g. 1 CH4 molecule reacts with 2 O2 molecules
next t scape
? Metals Very useful
Lose or gain an e.g. Copper wires conduct well Metals which are un-reactive are found in
electron their NATIVE STATE e.g. GOLD
Get a charge +/- TRANSITION Most need to be ALLOYED
to make them harder More reactive metals are found as
Attract one another!
METALS METALS ORES and need to be EXTRACTED
IRON VEGETABLE OIL Can be HARDENED by adding HYDROGEN To harden you
Pure iron is too soft to be useful. ·Are extracted by making them solid at room temperature for
Adding small amounts of other pressing or distillation things like spreads and margarines
elements can improve its properties. ·Are high in energy High Boiling Point and Gives a different flavour, texture
loads more energy (too much ·Hydrogen to be
This is ALLOYING. ·Can be used as fuels So useful for cooking
will make you obese)
added and break
IRON + `other elements' STEEL ·Are UNSATURATED (frying instead of boiling)
e.g. More easily shaped, harder, resistant to corrosion Unsaturated fats are better for you than Saturated fats
You can make Non-Biodegradable plastics are
RECYCLING CRACKING HYDROCARBONS ETHANOL
You can make
ETHANOL + CO2
Make big molecules into small ones! and STEAM OR using YEAST They don't rot away.
with a catalyst enzymes. Biodegradable plastics will
-heat them with steam and a catalyst
(from crude oil) (from plants) decompose = less rubbish!
Products: Alkanes (used for fuel) +
Alkenes (used for plastics,
·Saves energy medicines, dyes and explosives) ·Made from vegetable oils Making Plastics:
·Saves natural ·Less harmful to environment
Small molecules (monomers) added together
Reactivity Series recourses Test for double bonds: ·CARBON NEUTRAL
make new long molecules (polymers)
This helps you decide how to Bromine water (iodine water will also work) ·Lose farming land
extract a metal from its ORE. ·Less pollution ·Disruption of habitats
Alkenes (with double bonds) go CLEAR!
If its below CARBON it can be RENEWABLE ENERGY
reduced in a BLAST Furnace. CRUDE OIL e.g. ethanol from sugar
If its a metal above it CARBON A mixture of hydrocarbon compounds
cannot help extract it. st
Te Make it useful
Hydrogen Carbon Dioxide made from burning fuels
Extracting reactive metals and
New polymers are designed to work for
FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION specific jobs. SMART POLYMERS can
is a GREEN HOUSE GAS adding to
You might need to smelt or roast the Carbon change in different temperatures and
ONLY! Size effects BOILING POINT light. GLOBAL WARMING
ore and then use electrolysis to make it
We are also able to recycle plastics to
pure find more uses for them.
Pure Impure Scientist are using Filters and CATALYTIS
(copper ore) bacteria and plants to CONVERTERS can be fitted to
remove copper from factories and cars to reduce
ores where its too pollution
small to mine.
BIOLEACHING or You can also get
Sulfur impurities also burnt cause ... PARTICULATES
Impurities: include gold and silver
(can be sold)
Alkanes Saturated hydrocarbons. Bad for you and
Electrolysis can be expensive but will the environment
No double bonds, Maximum
help extract Copper, Hydrogen, Formula: CnH2n+2
High temperatures in
engines can also cause
the nitrogen from the air
to form acids too.
Aluminium and Titanium Alkenes Unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Burning fuels in plenty of oxygen gives CO2 + H2O
Double bonds, Less Hydrogen
Very useful and NON-CORROSIVE COMPLETE COMBUSTION
(wont rust away) Burning without enough oxygen gives CO (carbon monoxide) + H2O
INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION BAD!…read more
OIL DOES NOT DISSOLVE IN WATER Wegener's Big Idea
But they can be spread out in
suggested the idea
each other to make an of continental drift
(moving plates) but (Solid)
EMULSION people found it hard
to believe, they
couldn't see it and
Emulsions are used in: Adding an EMULSIFIER stops the oil had other ideas like
and water separating it will also land bridges, sinking
· Food continents and the
e.g. Mayonnaise, salad dressings & Decay
Death & ice creams improve texture crust shrinking. Also
he couldn't explain
· Paints Yummy! HOW it worked. All our resources come The crust is made up of
It took fossils and from the crust, oceans tectonic plates which
rocks evidence to
Experimental Variables convince people.
and atmosphere. are always moving..
Very very very .. Slowly.
Independent Variable the one
I CHANGE Earths Early Atmosphere Radiation in the mantle causes
Dependent Variable the one you ·Formed by volcanoes added CO2, CONVECTION CURRENTS which
RECORD Water and Nitrogen move the plates
Control Variables the ones you KEEP ·Which cooled and condensed into
CONSTANT (the same) oceans
·Plants then appeared and changes plates meet and
Calculating an average Just a CO2 to oxygen! (photosynthesis) collide or rub
Add up all your results reminder!
against one another
(except any anomalies you are leaving out)
we get natural
10 + 11 + 12 + 14 = 47
The Primordial soup experiment suggested that life started with a disasters
Divide your answer by the number of values you added together.
Here 4 values were used.. lightening spark, others suggested a meteorite or the deep ocean
So 47 event. Without a time machine we just don't know what started life We don't know when this will happen so
4 = 11.75 on earth! we cannot predict these events
The Carbon Death & Decay Takes a very
long time! Earths Atmosphere Now Answering Evaluation questions
Cycle Formation of You must give a balanced
Fossil Fuels Mostly argument if you can!
Death & Decay
The oxygen and
Problem 2 reasons why you might agree or
nitrogen think something is good.
Food chain... Respiration of 20%
Burning Fossil 2 reasons why you might disagree
Fuels or think something is bad.
Carbon in the
Is very quick!
atmosphere And a conclusive statement.
has Gases in the
Respiration The Carbon (your end opinion )
cycle: Shows air can be 80%
because we the movement separated by ALWAYS read the information you
now burn of carbon in fractional have been given. Sometimes the
and out of the
more fossil Respiration distillation for
atmosphere answer is hidden in the question.
fuels! use in industry
Returning Carbon to the Atmosphere…read more