C1 Exhaustive Revision Notes

These are my exhaustive revision notes for Chemistry Unit 2 of the GCSE Science / GCSE Chemistry syllabus for Edexcel.

I have used multiple textbooks as well as internet sources to compile these notes, and whilst I was compiling them, I actively kept the syllabus at hand, so hopefully there is nothing beyond these notes which is essential knowledge in order to answer any question on the exam paper (I would promise, but I know everyone's liable to human error!).

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The composition of the Earths atmosphere, which is the layer of gases surrounding the Earth, has changed
over millions of years.

When the Earth was first formed 4.6 billion years ago, the surface was molten for many years, with intense
volcanic activity for the first billion years. These erupted frequently…

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CO 0.04%
dioxide 2

n/a traces

In the above table, the class "other gases" includes the inert noble gases, carbon monoxide,methane and
sulphur dioxide.

Nitrogen gas is prominent in the contemporary Earths atmosphere, and it is theorised to have come from
volcanoesin the Earths early atmosphere.


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mean global temperatures in the last century "entirely consistent with well-understood, long-term, natural
climate cycles".

In order to reduce global warming , scientists are investigating two geoengineering methods to reduce the
proportion of carbon dioxidein the atmosphere .

Firstly, scientists are adding iron compounds to the oceans , a process…

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hydrocarbon + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + carbon monoxide + carbon (soot) + water

The incomplete combustion of any hydrocarbon is dangerous, especially domestically. Carbon monoxide is an
odourless, colourless, toxic gas and the c
arbonproduced (
soot) can be dangerous too.

Carbon monoxide enters ones bloodstream after inhalation and…

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These factors considered, the production of biofuels requires considerable amounts of land which may result in
less land for farmland, thereby reducing the worldwide supply of food and increasing food prices. In addition,
this land could be obtained through deforestation , a major contributor to global warming.

Another alternative to…

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Sedimentary rocks are susceptible to containing the fossils of deceased marine organisms that have sunk to the
seabed, and are more susceptible to erosion than igneous and metamorphic rocks because they do not contain
crystals and are layered, so there are few interlocking bonds to keep the s
edimentary rock…

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(carbon )
(hydrogen )
Platinum .

Resultingly, copper carbonate thermally decomposes easier than zinc carbonate, which in turn thermally
decomposes easier than calcium carbonate :

Carbonate Temperature required for thermal decomposition
Calcium carbonate 825 o
Zinc carbonate 300 o
Copper carbonate…

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acid + metal oxide -> salt + water

acid + metal hydroxide -> salt + water

acid + metal carbonate -> salt + water + carbon dioxide

In all of the above chemical reactions, the a
cid is neutralisedto produce a salt.

Hydrochloric acid produces chloride salts nitric acid produces…

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Chlorine gas is a yellow-green toxic gas, meaning that there is a potential hazard in its large-scale manufacture
through any leaks of it in factories or during its transportation, which may lead to the death of individuals.

Chlorine gas is used in making bleach and in making the polymer poly(chloroethene)…

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Iron or steel cans coated with tin do not make use of sacrificial protection: the tin only acts as a barrier
between the iron or steeland the air,
but is itself less reactive than the i
ron or steel.

Other methods of corrosion prevention include oiling, greasing and painting, all…


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