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Science C1,2,3

Chemistry 1: Air Quality
Unit 1.1: The changing air around us (Pg. 23)

Air composition: (Dry air)
78% : Nitrogen
21% : Oxygen
1% : Argon and small volumes of other gases

Clouds are made up of water or ice.
Dust are made up of solids, they are…

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Correlation: Link between a factor and an outcome.

Unit 1.3: Burning fuels

Oxygen is needed for any fuel to burn and release energy.

Hydrocarbons = Fossil fuels.
Only contain carbon & hydrogen.

When hydrocarbons burn:
Hydrocarbon fuel + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water (+ Energy)

Oxidation: When oxygen is added…

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Dissolves in rain water/oceans (CO2
)


Mean = A good estimate of true value
Range = Difference between high and low result
Removing outliers could lead to mistakes.

Unit 1.5: Improving power stations and transport

Improving power stations:
Removing electricity
Turning things off, not standby
Burning less
Removing sulphur from…

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Chemistry 2 : Material choices
Unit 1.1: Using and choosing materials

Each material has properties that make it suitable for the job is it doing:
Rubber is used for car tyres because it's hard and elastic
Fibres are used to weave cloth into clothes
Plastics keep their shape when moulded…

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Crude oil consists mainly of a mixture of hydrocarbons, which are chain molecules of varying lengths up to 100
carbon atoms long.

Unit 1.3: Separating crude oil

Crude oil is separated by fractional distillation:
The oil is heated up which turns it all into gases.
The distillation tower gets cooler…

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Unit 1.5: Nanotechnology and nanoparticles

Nanoparticles are materials containing up to a thousand atoms.
They:
occur naturally, such as salt in seaspray
occur by accident, such as solid particulates made when fuels burn
can be designed in laboratories

Nanotechnology is the use and control of very small structures, which are…

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Nanoparticles are feared to cause lung or brain damage.


















Chemistry 3: Chemicals in our lives: risks and benefits
Unit 1.1: Moving continents and useful rocks

ACID + ALKALI SALT + WATER

Geologists can date rocks and track the slow movements of continents through changes in magnetic patterns, which are
linked…

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Risks of easting salt in foods:
High blood pressure
Prevents bacteria growth
Heart failure
Strokes
This means salts is classified as a hazard.

A risk is the chance of getting ill, and the consequences if you did.
Risks can be estimated by measuring salt intake.

Unit 1.3: Reacting and making…

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hydrogen for making margarine, as rocket fuel, in fuel cells in vehicles
sodium hydroxide for paper recycling, industrial cleaners and refining aluminium.

Unit 1.5: Safe?

To decide the level of risk of a particular chemical we need to know:
how much of it is needed to cause harm
how much…

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