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Parasitic Nutrition
21 May 2011

= organisms that live on or in another organism obtaining nourishment at the expense of the host and causing harm.

Gut parasite (Taenia solium) = tapeworm
Primary host = human (eat uncooked infected pork)
Secondary host = pig (drainage channels contaminated by human faeces)…

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Adaptions to different diets
21 May 2011

Reptiles & Amphibians = swallow food whole
Mammals = cut up and chew (palate separates nasal cavity & mouth - kept in mouth longer)
Carnivore = short gut (easily digest protein)
Herbivore = long gut (plant digestion difficult)

Mechanical digestion =…

Page 3

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21 May 2011

= the break down of large insoluble molecules into smaller soluble molecules. Physical & chemical. Food
passes through alimentary canal where it is digested & absorbed into the body.

Digestive enzymes = hydrolases (catalyse hydrolysis of substrate - addition of water)
- Carbohydrates (polysaccharides) disaccharides…

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- Long
- Lining folded = large surface area
- Villi = finger like projections
- Epithelial cells = surface of villi (microscopic projections - microvilli)
- Large number of mitochondria = lots of energy required

Glucose & Amino-acids = epithelium of villi (diffusion & active transport) into capillary network…

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Structure of the gut
24 May 2011

Peristalsis = aids movement of food through alimentary canal

1) Ingestion
2) Digestion (mechanical = increase surface area/chemical = enzymes, glands in wall/outside wall)
3) Absorption
4) Egestion

Structure of Mammalian Gut
- Outer serosa = layer of connective tissue (protection/reduces friction…

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1) Large glands outside gut - secretions pass through tubes/ducts into lumen
Eg. Salivary gland, liver, pancreas
2) Glands in form of cells in sub-mucosa
Eg. Secrete mucus in duodenum (Brunner's glands - alkaline juices also)
3) Glands in form of cells in mucosa
Eg. Gastric glands(stomach) = gastric…

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Adaptions for nutrition
24 May 2011

Nutrition = obtain energy to maintain life functions and matter to create/maintain structure (from nutrients)

Autotrophic plants Use simple organic materials CO2 & H2O to manufacture energy &
make complex compounds (make own food) - provide food for others =
- Photosynthesis…

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Reproductive Strategies
24 May 2011

Life cycle = sequence of changes through which it passes during its life from origin in reproduction until death.

Reproduction = ability to produce other individuals of the same species

- Rapidly produces large numbers (identical genetic composition = clone)
- Binary fission…

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- Less chance of gametes being wasted
- Allows male gamete to be independent of water for movement
- Fertilized egg can be enclosed with protective covering before leaving female. (Animals lay eggs)
- Embryos develop within parent and derive nourishment from her (placenta) = greatest adaption (mammals)

Development of…

Page 10

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- Brightly coloured flowers & scent = attraction by insects (carry pollen to stigma)
- Male gametes travel through pollen tube to female part and egg (no longer needs film of water to reach egg)
- Fertilised egg develops into seed containing food store (with resistant coat)
- Key to…


Kimberley Wilkins


Not all content in it, missing circulatory system, adaptations for gas exchange in different classes etc

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