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Table of Contents

Competitive Pricing
Market Skimming
Penetration Pricing
Cost Plus Pricing
Loss Leader Pricing
Product Range
Product Mix
Manufacturer Wholesaler Retailer Customer
Manufacturer Retailer Customer
Manufacturer Customer
Location in or out of town?
How will small shops survive?
Above the line promotion

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The European Union
Features of a Single Market.
Benefits of a single Market for Businesses.
Benefit of Single Market for Consumers.
Benefits of a single currency.
Disadvantages of a single currency.
Economies of Scale.
Internal Economies of Scale.
External Economies of Scale.
Business Growth.
How do we measure Growth?…

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-Firms must product the right product at the right price, make it available in
the right places, and let the customers know about it through the right


- Deciding on a price of a product or a service. What are people willing to pay.

Pricing strategies include:-…

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Product Range
­ Different variations of the same product. There different variations on
the same product will attract different customers e.g. Cadburys
chocolate with or without nuts.

Product Mix
­ Variety of different products. This increases the variety in a shop
which encourages customer loyalty and also increases the spend…

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The wholesaler has a role in breaking bulk. He buys in high quantities from the
Manufacturer and sells small quantities to the retailer. The Wholesaler gets the
items cheap from the manufacturer since he buys many products. He then
would make a profit on selling products onto the retailer.


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Good customer relationships ­ knowing the customer and knowing what
he wants will help business.
Appeal to a niche market ­ This type of product is only for a limited
number of people
Increase sales through mail order or online marketing ­ the only other
way to keep profits high…

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­ includes natural resources (coal, fish) and the land itself.

­ Includes the skills of those who work.

­ Money invested in the business.

­ Ability to combine all other factors to make a profitable business.

Types of Economy.

-There are three types-

Markey Economy

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Opportunity Cost

All businesses have limited amounts of money ­ If a company spends more
money on advertising it will have to spend less on product design.

Types of Goods
Durable Consumer Goods
These are goods that are used over and over such as mobile phones.

Single Use Consumer Goods…




Absolutely AMAZING!!!!!!!!! Thnx....



Awww ty... wrote these years ago....



This is a comprehensive set of revision notes. Students will need to check it against the specification of their particular exam board to check it meets their exact requirements. They will also need to work out how they can best interact with it to maximise their learning from it. Just reading is unlikely to be totally effective.

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