Business Steve - People And Organisations- Theories Of Motiv

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Business Notes Emma Rudd BMA
People and Organisations
Theories of Motivation
Why is Motivation important?
Motivation can be the will to work due to enjoyment of the work itself. This implies
that motivation comes from within an individual employee. An alternative view of
motivation is that it is the will or the desire to achieve a given target or goal. The
first of these definitions assumes that motivation lies within employees the other
that it is the result of external stimuli.
Organisations whose workforces possess high levels of motivation might show a
number of characteristics:
A low level of absenteeism by employees at all levels within the business
Relatively few employees deciding to leave the organisation giving a low level of
Good industrial relations
High levels of productivity from the labour force.
It is factors that lead to productivity that are most important. A business that
enjoys the benefit of a highly motivated workforce is also likely to have a productive
workforce. Low production costs offer firms two opportunities:
1. To sell their products more cheaply ­ which might increase their market share.
2. To maintain original price levels and enjoy higher profits.
A high level of motivation within a workforce offers businesses other benefits too:
Motivated employees are normally contented, making it easier for businesses to
attract other employees ­ the firm will have a reputation as a `good' employer.
Modern businesses protect their public image and spend vast sums of money to
enhance it. The motivation (and thus the performance) of the workforce can be
an important element of creating a positive corporate image.
Over recent years, firms have become increasingly aware of the need to compare
in terms of quality and customer service. If businesses are to compete in these
ways, motivated employees are essential.
How can a Business Motivate Employees?
Many different views exist on motivation, and they differ because its not clear why
people work. Is it to gain money, to enjoy social interaction with other humans or to
fulfil personal needs such as achievement and recognition? If managers can identify
why people work they can determine how best to motivate them at work. The varying
reasons why people work underpins the theories that have been put forward by
various people.
School of Person Essential Ideas
Scientific School Motivation is an external factor achieve
TAYLOR through money.
Employees should be closely supervised and
paid piecerate.

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Business Notes Emma Rudd BMA
The most efficient means of production is
when employees are trained and told how to
Human Relations Employees could be motivated by have their
School MAYO social needs met.
More attention was given to the social
dimension of work (e.g. communication,
working as groups and consultation between
managers and employees).
The NeoHuman Highlighted the importance of fulfilling
Relations School of MASLOW psychological needs to improve employee
Management & performance.…read more

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Business Notes Emma Rudd BMA
The theory assumes there is a scientific `best way' to organise production, this
ignores differences between workers, which may affect the success of any one
The approach treats workers as machines to be used and controlled, creating an
atmosphere of conflict between workers and managers.
Money is not the only motivator. Taylor's ideas ignore personal and social needs of
individuals at work.…read more

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Business Notes Emma Rudd BMA
He believes that motivation lies within each individual employee, and that managers
merely need the key to unlock the motivational force. By focusing on the psychological
needs of employees both Maslow and Herzberg encouraged managers to treat their
employees as individuals with different needs and aspirations.…read more

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Business Notes Emma Rudd BMA
Theory into Practice
Maslow's theory has important practical implications for businesses.
To motivate a workforce requires an approach that will identify the level of need
of each individual
Businesses will have to seek to meet each individuals necessary need for all levels
of the hierarchy to ensure motivation
Financial rewards alone will not motivate. Boosting workers esteem and developing
talents are crucial, but without decent pay and job security these are worthless.…read more

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Business Notes Emma Rudd BMA
Subsequent research around the world has failed to confirm that Herzberg's
theory can generally be applied to workers in every business.
Some jobs, especially low skilled ones, cannot be easily `enriched', and many
workers may not seek responsibility or advancement.…read more


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