Business - Operations Management - Types Of Production

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  • Created on: 25-03-08 16:29
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Business Angela Emma Rudd BMA
Operations Management
Types of Production
Production and Operations
Many types of production exist in a modern economy. All, however rake inputs, transform
these in some way and produce outputs, whilst varying how they do this. These processes
will differ in terms of the number are range of goods produced, how they produce them and
the nature of their inputs and outputs.
Although there are many different types of production process they are often classified under
three headings:
1. Job Production
2. Batch Production
3. Flow Production
Job Production
Job production occurs when a firm produces specialised or oneoff items for its customers.
Job production is usually an expensive way of making something, as the firm must plan each
project individually. The firm also needs to have the skills and equipment available to meet a
wide range of different needs. In many cases job production relies on specialist skills and is
labour intensive, involving a high level of labour in relation to the amount of equipment and
machinery. The benefit of job production is that each item can be altered for the customer
this can be a useful marketing asset and may provide a Unique Selling Proposition.
Batch Production
In this type of production, groups of items move through different stages of the production
process at the same time. Paint and wallpaper rolls are good examples of things produced
in batch production. When you buy these items you can usually find a batch number on the
Batch production involves a great deal of planning to decide how the firms machines will be
used and what batch will be produced and when. It is also likely to involve high levels of
stock, as the firm must wait for all of the items to finish at one stage before they are moved
onto the next. Another key issue in batch production is the time it takes to switch from
producing one batch to producing another. This is known as down time. The longer the down
time, the more expensive it is for firms to produce because the machinery is not being used.
Flow Production
In this production system, products move continuously from one stage of process to
another. This type of production is appropriate when a firm is looking to produce large
volumes of very similar items. Flow production tends to be very capital intensive. This
means that the amount of machinery involved is high compared to the number of employees
involved. Flow production uses production line techniques.
Another consideration is that once the process is set up it is difficult to switch from one type
of product to another. Flow production is only really suitable when there is high demand for a
very standardised product. It is not appropriate when demand is changing all the time or the
over all level of demand is small. In flow production the aim is to keep the process moving at
all times any delay or stoppage is extremely expensive because the whole line must wait for
any fault to be fixed.

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Business Angela Emma Rudd BMA
Job Batch Flow
Oneoff production Production in batches Continuous production
or groups
Can produce tailor Involves a high level of Economies of scale
made products preplanning to involved in mass
co0ordinate batches production
Suitable for niche Can produce a variety Suitable for mass
marketing of products needing marketing
different marketing
Needs a wide range of Needs a fairly wide Needs one set of
machines and skills to range of equipment machines to produce
meet requirements of and skills for different…read more


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