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Bruner's Theory :
Jerome Bruner (1915 - )
Bruner says :
"The teaching and learning of structure, rather than simply the mastery of facts and techniques, is at
the center of the classic problem of transfer... If earlier learning is to render later learning easier, it
must do so by providing a general picture in terms of which the relations between things
encountered earlier and later are made as clear as possible."
"This notion underpins the idea of the spiral curriculum - 'A curriculum as it develops should revisit
this basic ideas repeatedly, building upon them until the student has grasped the full formal
apparatus that goes with them."
What his theory says:
Bruner's theoretical framework is based on the theme that learners construct new ideas or
concepts based upon existing knowledge. Learning is an active process. Parts of the process
include selection and transformation of information, decision making, generating
hypotheses, and making meaning from information and experiences.
Bruner was also strongly influenced by Vygotsky's writings and began to turn away from his
main focus of language and learning. He began to adopt a social and political view of learning.
Bruner argued that aspects of cognitive performance are facilitated by language. He
stressed the importance of the social setting in the acquisition of language. His views are
similar to those of Piaget, yet he places more emphasis on the social influences on
development. The earliest social setting is the `mother-child dyad', where children work out
the meanings of utterances due to being repeatedly exposed. Bruner identified several
important social devices including joint attention, mutual gaze, and turn-taking.
He did, however, believe there were individual differences and that no standard sequence
could be found for all learners. He took on board people's differences and how their
personality affects their use of language and that in learning some children can need more
encouragement than others even if children all learn from building on knowledge and
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Symbolic- language starts to influence thought.…read more