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Edward Saunders 2012 ©




Biology
Cells and Cell Functions
Cell Features
· Cytoplasm contains enzymes; where reactions occur
· Nucleus contains genetic info in the chromosomes
· Membrane controls what goes in and out
· Ribosomes where proteins are made
· Mitochondria where reactions for aerobic respiration occurs
· Rigid…

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20 different amino acids (in cytoplasm of cells)
Each acid is coded for by a sequence of 3 bases
Amino acids come from diet (+ transamination in the liver, when excess amino acids are converted in ones that are
needed)
Ribosomes (organelle)
Where proteins are made…

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Edward Saunders 2012 ©

o Random movement in both directions but there is a net change
E.g.
MOVEMENT OF WATER FROM TISSUE FLUID BODY CELLS (to maintain turgidity)
ROOT HAIR CELLS (in plants)



Organs and Systems 1
Respiration
"Breaking down glucose to release energy in every cell"
o Energy is…

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o Emulsifies fats (increases S.A for lipase action)
Blood
o Plasma
"pale yellow liquid which carries:"
Red/white blood cells
Platelets
CO2
Hormones
Water
Digested food products (glucose/amino acids)
Urea
Antibodies/Antitoxins
o Red Blood Cells
Transports oxygen
Adaptations:
Biconcave (large S.A for absorbing/releasing O2)
Contains haemoglobin (in…

Page 5

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Edward Saunders 2012 ©

3. Adjustment of water content in the blood

1. Urea
o A poisonous waste product from the liver
Amino acids are converted into fats and carbohydrates (as proteins can't be stored)
2. Adjustment of ion content
o Ions (such as sodium) are absorbed from food into…

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Growth "an increase in size or weight"
1. Size height width length circumference
2. Wet Weight incl. all water (varies a lot day to day: drinking/sweating)
3. Dry Weight excl. all water (can only be measured once an organism is dead & dried out)

Animals grow…

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Mendel
Worked in monastery gardens and noticed the variation between different pea plants in the 1850s
Identified predictable patterns and that some characteristics were dominant over others
Ideas not initially accepted as they had no knowledge of genes/DNA
o Mendel had nothing to support his observations/…

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o For cell growth
Stunted growth
Yellow leaves
MAGNESIUM
Produce chlorophyll
o For photosynthesis
Yellow leaves
(PHOSPHATES)
Phosphorous
o For DNA and Cell Membranes
Poor root growth
Purple leaves
(POTASSIUM)
For enzymes (that control respiration & photosynthesis)
Discoloured leaves
Poor flower and fruit growth

Pyramids of…

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Edward Saunders 2012 ©

Disadvantages Lots of animals in a small space Animals vulnerable to weather
Calves leave their mothers at just 8 Eggs can't be collected easily
weeks
Cowsheds need cleaning Feedstuff is expensive
Heating/lighting costs More land needed
Disease spreads quickly Calves take longer to gain weight
Animals…

Page 10

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Edward Saunders 2012 ©

Warmth
Moisture
Oxygen
Carbon Cycle
Only one arrow down: PHOTOSYNTHESIS
o Green plants use carbon from CO2 to make carbohydrates, fats and proteins
Respiration (plants and animals) releases CO2 back in to the air
Dead matter can:
o Be eaten
o Decompose
o Be turned into…

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