Brief history on Civil Rights and the Reactions to Affirmative Action

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Brief History on Civil Rights:
BROWN v BOARD 1954:
NAACP filed case on behalf of Linda Brown-who was transported out of her white neighbourhood to
a black school in Topeka. This was ruled unconstitutional.
It ruled against Plessy v Ferguson, `separate but equal'. And it ruled that educational facilities were
inherently unequal-therefore, violating the 14th amendment.
1961-Kennedy-Executive Order 10925
Encouraged the use of affirmative action by mandating that projects financed by federal funds take
`affirmative action' to ensure that hiring and employment practices are free of racial practice.
Revised Philadelphia Plan 169-Nixon
Affirmative action was adopted as a federal mandate for companies with contracts for labour, and
for labour unions who were engaged in these projects.
Ricci v Desteffano, 2009
Brought to SC by fire-fighter-Ricci in New Haven, Connecticut. 19 white and 2 Hispanic fire-fighters
passed their test for promotion, yet none of the black ones did. The fire-department claimed that
none of the blacks had achieved high enough grades, despite passing the tests, so the SC declared
their actions to violate the Civil Rights Acts.
OPPOSING OF AFFIRMATIVE ACTION:
CALIFORNIA PROPOSITION 209-Promoting equal rights and opportunities, through opposing
affirmative action.
NEBRASKA, INITIATIVE 424-Constitutional ban on government sponsored affirmative action.
WASHINGTON 200- Prohibited `preferential' treatment-therefore AA.
NEW HAMPSHIRE- As of January 2012, affirmative
WARD CONNERLY: Republican activist known to be behind California's Initiative 209. In 2008, he tried
to dismantle affirmative action campaigns in five different states. (Failed to make it in 3 states,
Colorado rejected in and Nebraska introduced their Initiative 424).

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