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Chemistry
Classifying Materials
Mass Number (top)
Atomic No./Proton No. (bottom)
Periodic Table has approx. 100 elements
Groups of elements share similar properties
Groups
Similar properties
Same no. of electrons in the outer shell
chemical properties are determined entirely by atomic no. (electrons)
Electron shells
o Electrons always occupy shells
o…

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Diamond
o Very rigid
Each C atom forms 4 bonds
Graphite
o High melting point
o Conductive
o Sheets can slide/be rubbed off
Each C atom forms only 3 bonds
Leaves free delocalised electrons
o Simple Covalent Structures
Very strong covalent bonds
Intermolecular forces are very weak
1. Low melting/boiling…

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Cl2 + 2KI I2 + 2KCl
Group 0 Noble Gases
1. Inert
2. Colourless Gases (at room temperature)
3. Emit a particular colour of light when a current is passed through
o He bright red light in electrical discharge tubes in shop signs
Airships and balloons
o He-Ne laser
o…

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Relative Atomic Mass Ar
"How heavy atoms are compared with the mass of one atom of Carbon 12"
Same as the mass number (top no.)
Relative Formula Mass Mr
All the Ar's added together
Isotopes
"different atomic forms of the same element which have the same number of protons but…

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o Transferring liquids
Between containers
Container surfaces are left wet
o Unexpected reactions
Caused by impurities or changes in reaction conditions
Reactants are used as they react to form unwanted products
o Reversible Reaction
Not all reactants become products
Changes in conditions move the equilibrium position
Mole
"one mole of…

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Salts
Any Salt from INSOLUBLE BASES
e.g. CuCO3 + 2HNO3 Cu(NO3)2 + CO2 +H2O
easy: just add everything until acid is neutralised (excess falls to the bottom as it's insoluble)
Any Salt from SOLUBLE BASES
same as above just do it twice
o first time with an indicator, titration, to…

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o Usually molten ionic substances or dissolved salts
E.g. salt solution of NaCl
POSITIVE ANODE takes electrons away (from ions)
2Cl- Cl2 + 2e-
NEGATIVE CATHODE gives electrons (to ions)
2H+ + 2e- H2
and
o NaOH is left in the solution
o Chlorine gas is produced at the Anode…

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Volume of gas released
o Uses a gas syringe
GOOD quite accurate
Collision Theory
"rate of reaction depends on how often & how hard the reacting particles collide"
To increase rate of reaction
o HIGHER TEMPERATURE* move quicker
o HIGHER CONCENTRATION more particles of reactant amongst the same number of…

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Reversible Reactions
"a reaction where the products can themselves react to produce the original reactants"
Will reach a dynamic equilibrium
o Position of equilibrium depends on
TEMPERATURE
Raised = endothermic reaction increases (to lose extra heat)
Reduced = exothermic reaction increases (to give out extra heat)
Pressure
Raised = encourages…

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Fe3+ RED/BROWN Fe(OH) 3
Al3+ WHITE (then dissolves) Al(OH) 3
NH4 none (heating ammonia then gas test)
Tests for Anions (NEGATIVE)
o Add Hydrochloric Acid
Carbonates (CO3)
Produces Carbon Dioxide + Water
o Test for CO2 with limewater
Sulfites (SO3)
Produces Sulfur Dioxide
o Test with Potassium Dichromate (VI) paper…

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