Brief summary of C1 (Part A)

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  • Created by: gwelsh
  • Created on: 17-05-16 20:12
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C1 Summary
Covalent bonding:
Nonmetal + nonmetal
Produces simple molecular compunds or giant covalent structures
It's the sharing of electons (when two atoms join together)
Ionic bonding:
Metal + nonmetal
Donation of electrons
Strong bond is formed (ionic structure/lattice)
Atoms are more stable when they have a full outer shell
Limestone and building materials:
It's mainly calcium carbonate (CaCO 3)
Thermal decomposition of limestone creates calcium oxide and carbon dioxide
Uses of limestone:
o Buildings, statues
o Cement (limestone + clay)
o Mortar (cement + sand)
o Aggregate (cement + mortar)
Disadvantages of quarrying limestone:
o Noise pollution
o Dust
o Destroys landscape
o Pollution from vechiles
Advantages of quarrying limestone:
o Jobs created
o Valuble
When different elements react to form chemical bonds
Making a bond means that atoms give away, share or take away electrons

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Getting metals from rocks:
Ore ­ Something which contains enough metal to make extraction worthwhile
Electrolysis ­ Extraction using electricity:
o Electrolyte (liquid) conducts electricity via it's free ions
o Electrons are taking away from the anode and given away by the cathode
o It's expensive
o Uses a lot of energy
Reduction using carbon (because the metal is lower than carbon in the reactivity series):
o Oxygen is removed by heating the metal oxide in a blast furnace
Extracting copper:
o Bioleaching:
Uses…read more


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