Bridging the Development Gap - Complete notes (Edexcel)

This is complete notes, with case studies, defitions, and arguments for an agaisnt positions. Useful to someone trying to get an A*. 

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Page 1

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The
causes
of
the
`development
gap'

Development


- Development
is
the
improvement
or
progression,
often
with
reference
to

the
quality
of
life,
and
contains
many
things.

o Economic
development
is
about
the
growth
in
wealth
and
incomes.

o Human
development
tends
to
have
a
greater
focus
on
the
quality
of…

Page 2

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o The
GDP
is
the
total
value
of
goods
and
services
produced
by
a

country
in
a
year.



o To
take
account
of
the
different
populations
of
countries
the
GDP

per
capita
is
often
used.



o To
take
into
account
differences
in
the
cost
of
living
between

countries
Purchasing
Power…

Page 3

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! Bottom:
1.Sierra
Leone;
2.Burkina
Faso;
3.Guinea-Bissau;

4.Niger;
5.
Mali


- Gender
Empowerment
Measure
(GEM)

o The
Gender
Empowerment
Measure
(GEM)
is
a
measure
of

inequalities
between
men
and
women's
opportunities
in
a
country.


o It
combines
inequalities
in
three
areas:
political
participation
and

decision
making,
economic
participation
and
decision…

Page 4

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Uganda
Development
­
Case
study

- Indicators
of
the
gap

o Life
expectancy:
49.7
(UK
81
years)

! Low
due
to
HIV/AIDS
­
6%
of
population.

o GDP
(PPP$
per
capita):
$1454
(4.4%
of
UK)

! Economy
based
almost
entirely
on
primary
goods
and

global
prices
are
low
due
to…

Page 5

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o Develop
a
global
partnership
­
the
president
would
like
to
produce

semi-manufactured
goods
to
the
rest
of
the
world
because
it
adds

value,
creates
jobs
etc.


- Impacts
of
Debt
Cancellation

o 20%
increase
in
public
services
spending


! 40%
on
education

! 70%
health

o Free
primary
schooling…

Page 6

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! Birth
rate
low:
Birth
control
is
widely
available
and
there
is

a
desire
for
smaller
families.

! Death
rate
low:
Descent
healthcare,
sanitation
and
diet.


o Stage
5
-
Total
population
is
high
but
going
into
decline
due
to
an

ageing
population.
There
is
a
continued
desire
for
smaller…

Page 7

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· E.g.
African
nations.

! Suggested
that
communist
countries
couldn't
develop

without
adopting
his
model.

! Believes
there
is
only
one
pathway
to
development.

! Didn't
consider
non-economic
factors
like
population

growth
or
political
change.

- Dependency
theory
(A.G.
Frank
1967
(Marxist))

o Outline

! The
developed
world
keeps
the…

Page 8

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o Criticisms

! It
is
more
of
a
description
of
the
world
rather
than
an

explanation
of
it.

! It
does
not
account
for
the
rise
of
China.

! It
has
a
bi-polar
outlook
(written
in
the
cold
war).

- Poverty
cycle

o Outline

! LECs
are
trapped
in
a…

Page 9

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! Trade
barriers
of
developed
countries
make
it
harder
for

developing
countries
to
export
their
goods.




Global
Players

- International
Monetary
Fund
(IMF)

o Main
goal:
to
ensure
the
stability
of
the
international
monetary

and
financial
system.


o Running

! The
IMF
currently
has
a
near-global
membership
of
187

countries.…

Page 10

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! Loans
to
poorest
countries
are
often
interest-free
and
have

long
repayment
periods.

· (Through
the
IDA).

o Action


! Borrows
between
$20
billion
and
$30
billion
a
year.

! Has
funded
over
4000
projects
in
over
130
different

countries.


o Criticisms


! The
five
largest
shareholders
-
France,
Germany,…

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