Bridging the Development Gap - Complete notes (Edexcel)

This is complete notes, with case studies, defitions, and arguments for an agaisnt positions. Useful to someone trying to get an A*. 

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: tom baker
  • Created on: 08-10-15 21:12
Preview of Bridging the Development Gap - Complete notes (Edexcel)

First 584 words of the document:

The
causes
of
the
`development
gap'
Development
- Development
is
the
improvement
or
progression,
often
with
reference
to
the
quality
of
life,
and
contains
many
things.
o Economic
development
is
about
the
growth
in
wealth
and
incomes.
o Human
development
tends
to
have
a
greater
focus
on
the
quality
of
life.
o Holistic
considerations
of
development
is
increasingly
considered,
involving
economic,
human,
environmental,
socio-cultural,
demographic
and
political
matters.
- The
development
gap
is
`the
difference
in
income
and
quality
of
life
between
the
richest
and
poorest
people
in
the
World'.
o It
can
also
occur
within
countries
(e.g.
Urban
and
Rural).
The
Gap
- North-
South
Divide
o The
Brandt
report
in
1980
defined
the
disparity
between
countries
in
the
world,
this
became
known
as
the
North-South
Divide.
o This
two-tiered
classification
was
refined
by
the
World
Bank
into
three
main
groupings:
high,
middle
and
low-income
countries,
with
the
`middle'
category
subdivided
into
two
(`upper'
and
`lower').
- Development
continuum
o This
term
is
an
alternative
for
the
gap,
as
there
is
a
graduated
change
between
countries
wealth.
- Distribution
o The
way
the
world's
wealth
is
distributed
would
suggest
a
large
divide.
o In
2005,
richest
countries
with
15%
of
world
population
had
80%
of
the
wealth,
while
the
poorest,
with
40%
of
the
world
population
had
3%
of
wealth.
o The
top
200
TNCs
account
for
25%
of
the
world's
economic
activity
and
employ
1%
of
the
world's
work
force.
- Causes
of
divide
o Physical:
Water
availability,
access
to
mineral
deposits,
Environment
(e.g.
Harsh),
Soil
quality,
climate.
o Social:
Dependency
levels,
population
levels,
birth
rates,
education
and
skills,
infrastructure.
o Economic:
Economic
dependency
on
industries,
TNCs,
Trade
links,
Economic
groupings,
regulation.
o Political:
Corruption,
debt,
freedom,
government
policy
to
health
education
etc.
Measuring
development
Economic
measures
- Gross
Domestic
Product
(GDP)

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

The
GDP
is
the
total
value
of
goods
and
services
produced
by
a
country
in
a
year.
o To
take
account
of
the
different
populations
of
countries
the
GDP
per
capita
is
often
used.
o To
take
into
account
differences
in
the
cost
of
living
between
countries
Purchasing
Power
Parity
(PPP)
is
used
(by
organisations
like
the
UN).
o E.g.
GDP
PPP
Per
Capita
(2007)
! Top:
1.Qatar;
2.Luxembourg;
3.Malta;
4.Norway;
5.Brunei
! Bottom:
1.Rwanda;
2.Togo;
3.Mozambique;
4.Malawi;
5.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Bottom:
1.Sierra
Leone;
2.Burkina
Faso;
3.Guinea-Bissau;
4.Niger;
5.
Mali
- Gender
Empowerment
Measure
(GEM)
o The
Gender
Empowerment
Measure
(GEM)
is
a
measure
of
inequalities
between
men
and
women's
opportunities
in
a
country.
o It
combines
inequalities
in
three
areas:
political
participation
and
decision
making,
economic
participation
and
decision
making,
and
power
over
economic
resources.
o It
is
one
of
the
five
indicators
used
by
the
United
Nations
Development
Programme
in
its
annual
Human
Development
Report.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Uganda
Development
­
Case
study
- Indicators
of
the
gap
o Life
expectancy:
49.7
(UK
81
years)
! Low
due
to
HIV/AIDS
­
6%
of
population.
o GDP
(PPP$
per
capita):
$1454
(4.4%
of
UK)
! Economy
based
almost
entirely
on
primary
goods
and
global
prices
are
low
due
to
a
glut
in
supply.
o Government
have
low
export
tax.
There
are
also
few
wealthy
companies
to
tax
which
results
in
less
money
to
spend
on
education
and
health
etc.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Develop
a
global
partnership
­
the
president
would
like
to
produce
semi-manufactured
goods
to
the
rest
of
the
world
because
it
adds
value,
creates
jobs
etc.
- Impacts
of
Debt
Cancellation
o 20%
increase
in
public
services
spending
! 40%
on
education
! 70%
health
o Free
primary
schooling
introduced
o 2.2
million
have
clean
access
to
water
o HDI
rise
­
1985
-0.420,
2005
­
0.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Birth
rate
low:
Birth
control
is
widely
available
and
there
is
a
desire
for
smaller
families.
! Death
rate
low:
Descent
healthcare,
sanitation
and
diet.
o Stage
5
-
Total
population
is
high
but
going
into
decline
due
to
an
ageing
population.
There
is
a
continued
desire
for
smaller
families,
with
people
opting
to
have
children
later
in
life.
· E.g.
Japan
Theories
of
Development
- Modernisation
Theory
(W.W.
Rostrow
1960
(Liberal))
(Take-off
model)
o Outline
! Economic
development
is
linear,
five-stages
process.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

E.g.
African
nations.
! Suggested
that
communist
countries
couldn't
develop
without
adopting
his
model.
! Believes
there
is
only
one
pathway
to
development.
! Didn't
consider
non-economic
factors
like
population
growth
or
political
change.
- Dependency
theory
(A.G.
Frank
1967
(Marxist))
o Outline
! The
developed
world
keeps
the
rest
of
the
world
underdeveloped
in
order
to
allow
them
to
exploit
it
for
cheap
resources.
! Capitalism
is
the
mechanism
that
keeps
countries
poor,
as
they
were
prosperous
before
colonisation.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Criticisms
! It
is
more
of
a
description
of
the
world
rather
than
an
explanation
of
it.
! It
does
not
account
for
the
rise
of
China.
! It
has
a
bi-polar
outlook
(written
in
the
cold
war).
- Poverty
cycle
o Outline
! LECs
are
trapped
in
a
continuous
cycle
of
poverty
because
of
a
lack
of
capital
(money)
and
low
incomes.
! E.g.
· Lack
of
education,
means
they
don't
give
their
children
an
education.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Trade
barriers
of
developed
countries
make
it
harder
for
developing
countries
to
export
their
goods.
Global
Players
- International
Monetary
Fund
(IMF)
o Main
goal:
to
ensure
the
stability
of
the
international
monetary
and
financial
system.
o Running
! The
IMF
currently
has
a
near-global
membership
of
187
countries.
! IMF
members
have
a
quota,
relative
to
their
size
of
the
world
economy,
that
determines
maximum
obligation
to
the
IMF.
! The
quota
also
largely
determines
a
member's
voting
power
in
IMF
decisions.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

Loans
to
poorest
countries
are
often
interest-free
and
have
long
repayment
periods.
· (Through
the
IDA).
o Action
! Borrows
between
$20
billion
and
$30
billion
a
year.
! Has
funded
over
4000
projects
in
over
130
different
countries.
o Criticisms
! The
five
largest
shareholders
-
France,
Germany,
Japan,
the
United
Kingdom
and
the
United
States
-
appoint
an
executive
director,
while
other
member
countries
are
represented
by
20
elected
executive
directors.
! Conditions
attached
to
loans
are
sometimes
said
to
damage
economies.…read more

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all resources »