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Bonding
Ionic
Evidence for the existence of ions
- Physical properties: high mpt and high bpt, molten and
aqueous samples are conductive whereas solid samples are
not, soluble in polar compounds
- Electron density maps show areas with low/ no electron
density between ions
- Conductivity of aqueous solutions shown…

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Covalent
- Strong bond formed by electrostatic attraction between positive nucleus and negative electrons

Evidence
- Properties of simple molecular substances:
- Gases, liquids or soft solids at rtp due to weak
intermolecular forces (low mpt, bpt)
- Are not conductors as they dont contain ions or free
electrons to…

Page 3

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Metallic
- Giant lattice of metal ions in a sea of delocalised electrons
- The strong attraction between the free electrons and the positive ions holds the structure together
- Properties:
- High bpt and mpt (much energy needed to break metallic bonds)
- High density
- Good conductors of…

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