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Ionic Bonding
An ionic bond is the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.
Electrons are transferred from metal atom to non-metal atom.…read more

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Covalent Bonding
A covalent bond is a bond formed by a shared pair of electrons.
An electron pair occupies the space between the 2 atoms nuclei.
A dative covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons that has been provided by
one of the bonding atoms only.…read more

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Intermolecular forces
An intermolecular force is an attractive force between neighbouring molecules
Permanent dipole-dipole interactions
Weak attractive force between permanent dipoles in neighbouring polar
molecules.
Van der Waals' forces.
Attractive forces between induced dipoles in neighbouring molecules.
What causes them?
Cause by the movement of electrons in the shells.
The greater the number of electrons, the larger the induced dipoles
The greater the attractive forces between molecules…read more

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Hydrogen Bonding
A hydrogen bond is the permanent dipole-dipole interaction between
molecules containing O-H and N-H bonds.
Hydrogen bonding gives water special properties
Ice is less dense than water
Ice has an open lattice w/ hydrogen bonds holding water molecules apart
When ice melts, the rigid hydrogen bonds collapse, allowing h2o molecules to
move closer together.
Water has relatively high melting and boiling points.
Hydrogen bonds and extra forces, over and above van der Waals' forces
These extra forces have to be overcome.
Other properties
Extra intermolecular bonding from hydrogen bonds also explains relatively high
surface tension and viscosity of water.…read more

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Metallic bonding and structure
Metallic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions
and delocalised electrons.
Properties of giant metallic lattices
High melting and boiling points
High temps needed to break metallic bonds.
Good electrical conductivity
Delocalised electrons can move freely…read more

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