Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
Bonding

Types of Bonding

Ionic Bonding

An attraction between oppositely charged ions which are formed by the transfer of electrons
from one atom to another

Can form giant ionic structures

Properties
· High boiling and melting points (Needed to break strong electrostatic forces
· Can conduct electricity when molten or…

Page 2

Preview of page 2
Covalent bonding happens as the electrons are more stable when attracted to two nuclei rather than
one . Covalent bonds should not be regarded as shared electron pairs in a fixed position, they are in
a state of constant motion and are best known as charge clouds.

Examples of giant…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
2+ 2+

e
Mg e Mg
e
e




Electronegativity

The ability of an atoms to attract electrons in a covalent bond

The electronegativity of an atom depends on its ability to attract and hold onto electrons.
Electronegativity increases across the periods as the nucleur charge increases but the shielding stays…

Page 4

Preview of page 4
Metallic
If both atoms are electropositive neither can attract the electrons and so the electrons are free to
move about, both atoms gain a positive charge and the bond is metallic.
2+ 2+
x
o
Mg Mg
x
o


So if sufficient electronegativity data is given, it is possible to…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory
· Valence shell electron pairs are arranged to minimise repulsions between themselves

· Order of repulsion strength: lone pair-lone pair> lone pair- shared pair> shared pair-shared
pair

· When there are five or more electron pairs, neglect repulsion between electron pairs at an
angle…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
Distorted Shapes
Because of the presence of lone pairs, molecular shapes can sometimes be distorted, this is because
lone pairs repel more than bonding pairs/shared pairs.

Ammonia

· Three bonding pairs and a lone pair
· Based on tetrahedral, due to extra repulsion from lone pair, the 3 N-H bonds…

Page 7

Preview of page 7
Hydrogen Bonding in Water
During the formation of a hydrogen bond, the electron in each hydrogen atom is pulled tightly to
the nearly full oxygen valence shell in a covalent bond. This tight draw toward the oxygen creates a
partial negative charge on the other side of the oxygen and…

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all resources »