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Is the use of organisms e.g. microbes, enzymes in biochemical processes to
generate useful products such as food e.g. yoghurt, cheese
microbes/enzymes e.g. Lactobacillus, yeast drugs e.g. Penicillin, insulin etc.

Why use Microbes?
Grow rapidly, so more products are made.
Microbes can be genetically engineered to produce specific products…

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ELECTROPORATION ­ High voltage pulses applied to disrupt the
MICROINJECTION ­ DNA is injected into the host's cell.
VIRAL TRANSFER ­ Vector infects recipient cell by inserting DNA directly.
T. PLASMIDS ­ Can be inserted into soil bacterium Agrobacterium
tumefaciens. This infects plants which inserts DNA into plant genome.…

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Treat some types of Cancer e.g. Leukaemia
Treat/Cure Alzheimer's Disease
Treat/Cure Parkinson's Disease
Treat Multiple Sclerosis

Ethical Objections to Embryonic Stem Cells
Religious objections.
Embryo is a potential human therefore they have a right to life.
The cell may be from an aborted embryo.
Parents may not know the fate…


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