Biotechnology B3 Topic 1

Basically the whole of the first biology topic for edexcel extension science.

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Biotechnology B3 Topic 1
Functional Foods Biotechnology ­ the way we use plant and animal cells to produce
substances- Wine, Beer and Bread Lactic Acid bacteria.
Biotechnology can be used to develop new plant-based drugs.
Prebiotics ­ added sugars called oligosaccharides. They are food for good bacteria in
the gut.
Probiotics ­ produced by fermentation, when bacteria ferment milk and other foods.
The good bacteria themselves. Benecol ­ contains stanol ester.
Claims to lower cholesterol levels by up to 10, but claims by manufacturers may not
be correct, balanced diet has all the same things.
Making Yoghurt and Soy Sauce
Milk production = lactose to lactic acids using bacteria. Yoghurt =
1. Milk is heated to sterilise it, killing all bacteria present.
2. Milk is thoroughly stirred to mix up ingredients, milk protein added.
3. Starter Culture of LACTOBACILLUS bacteria added while milk is still warm.
4. The LACTOBACILLUS bacteria ferment the sugar lactose to lactic acid
5. The lactic acid lowers the pH of the milk ­ milk proteins coagulate.
6. The raw yoghurt is cooled quickly, flavours added and sealed and sold
Soy Sauce ­
1. Soy Beans are cooked.
2. ASPERGILLUS mould is added to the mixture, spread out on warm shallow trays
3. Enzymes produced by the ASPERGILLUS catalyse the breakdown of proteins and
carbohydrates in the mixture
4. Brine (Sodium Chloride Solution) is added to mixture ­
5. Yeasts and LACTOBACILLUS bacteria are added, can tolerate low levels of oxygen
and high levels of sodium chloride. The conditions stop ASPERGILLUS activities.
6. Sugars in the mixture are fermented by the yeast and LACTOBACILLUS.
7. Raw soy sauce is drained from the mixture, and filtered to remove any sediment.
8. Heated to 72C to pasteurise it, stored in bottles.
Rennet is vital to the process of cheese making. The curds are cheese. Rennet
traditionally come from the stomach of slaughtered calves.
Citric Acid ­ produced using mould fungus ASPERGILLUS NIGER. Added to fizzy drinks,
sweets jams, it enhances the flavour and prevent breakdown of Vitamin C in the food.
Glutamic Acid ­ amino acid ­ produced using CORYNEBACTERIUM GLUTAMICUM.
monosodium glutamate (MSG) ­ Enhancers food flavours, Popular use in Chinese
Acetobacter used to produce Vitamin C ­ 2 stages fermentation starting with glucose.
Invertase (Sucrase) ­ produced using yeast fungus SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE.
The enzyme promotes the breakdown of the sugar sucrose in glucose and fructose
Sucrose --------------> Glucose + Fructose
Invertase ­ Sweet makers use to convert solid insides of chocolates into a liquid
Glucose Isomerase ­ converts glucose into fructose which is sweeter. Fructose syrups
used to make sweets.
by Megan Kennedy 11P

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Biotechnology B3 Topic 1
Eating Well
Need to have a balanced diet in order to get enough nutrients:
Vitamins and Minerals.
mass (kg)
Body Mass Index (BMI) Body Mass Index= (height)2
0-25 reduces risk of weight-related problems
25-30 is not likely to have much effect on your health
30+ means your heart could suffer. 30 or more is said to be obese
Feeding the World
Breeding Programs ­ Hybridisation breeding two different varieties with desired
qualities.…read more

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Biotechnology B3 Topic 1
1. It is easier and safer for farmers to control weeds and insects which reduce
crop yields
2. Volume of herbicides and Insecticides used are reduced.
3. Reduces the risk to the environment.
4. Less competition for nutrients, space and water increases the amount of food
5. Can grow crops where rainfall is low.
6. Crops can produce their own fertiliser.
7. Crops can resist the microorganisms which cause crop disease.…read more

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Biotechnology B3 Topic 1
Limited uses at the moment, but developments look promising.
For example, it can be used to identify unresponsive muscles to salbutamol, and allows
patients to be given a drug suited to them ­ to treat asthma Genomics can be used to
find out how effective a patients liver enzymes are, so the dose of drug and be altered
to prevent build up of drugs in the patient.…read more

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Biotechnology B3 Topic 1
Stem cells could be used to replace damaged tissues in Parkinson's disease, diabetes,
different cancers and Alzheimer's disease.
A small cluster of cells in the brain produce a chemical neurotransmitter called
dopamine, people with Parkinson's disease don't produce enough, causing
uncoordinated movements because lack of dopamine affects muscle control. In 1999,
scientists took 10-15 healthy stem cells and grew them, encouraged them to
differentiate into dopamine producing cells and then allowed them to divide by mitosis.…read more


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