dis is 4 da edecel ppl doing the extension units aka triple sciece lol

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  • Created on: 24-03-12 14:12
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Fermentation- microorganisms breaks down sugars to release energy- usually by anaerobic respiration
Yoghurt- fermented by milk
Making yoghurt
1. Equipment is sterilised- kill unwanted microbes
2. Milk is pasteurised (72 C- 15 seconds) - kill microbes. Milks is cooled
3. Starter culture of a bacteria is added and the mixture incubated in a vessel- fermenter
4. Bacteria ferments the lactose sugar in the milk to form lactic acid- causes milk to clot+ solidify into
yoghurt and lowers PH of milk
5. Flavour and colour is added and the yoghurt is packaged
Making Soy Sauce
1. Cooked soy sauce and roast wheat are mixed together
2. Mixture is fermented by the Aspergillus Fungus
3. The mixture is fermented by yeast
4. Mixture is fermented by Lactobacillus bacterium
5. Liquid is filtered to remove any sediment
6. Its pasteurised to kill any unwanted microbes and stored in sterile bottles
Functional foods- having health benefits beyond normal nutrition
Carbohydrates; oligosaccharides- may help prevent gut infection, food supply for "good bacteria"- "bad
bacteria" and humans cannot digest prebiotic, not right enzymes- Occur in leek, onion and oats- some
people take supplements, not enough in normal diets
Oligosaccharides- carbohydrates that are prebiotic- 3 to 10 simple sugars joined
Ester- formed from alcohol and carboxylic acid= functional group, -COO-, lowers cholesterol level in the
blood and reduce risk of heart attack- occurs naturally in plants- made by using bacteria to convert sterols
into stanols
Alcohol + carboxylic acid ester + water
Cholesterol- oily lipid component of cell membrane= risk of heart attack with high level
Microbial products used in food
Enzymes 1. Invertase; used in manufacture of sweets- converts the sucrose {sugar} into glucose
+ fructose {diff types of sugar}- taste sweeter- less sugar is needed for same
sweetness- save money for manufacturer + lower calories- naturally produced by a
yeast- Saccaromyces cerevisiae
Chymosin 1. Cheese made from rennet, obtained from lining of calf's stomach- contains enzyme
chymosin= clots the milk
2. Vegetarian against- made with rennet from animals.... So vegan cheese is made
from GM chymosin
3. So, gene for chymosin from calf put in yeast and made in industrial scale

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Vitamin C 1. Dietary supplements (pills), added to drinks to stop them going off
2. Bacterium called Acetobacter produces chemical converted to vitamin- cheaper and
easier then extracting it from fruit
Citric acid 1. Flavouring and preservative is added to fruit flavoured fizzy drinks
2. Found in citrus fruits
3. Aspergillus niger is added to produce it commercially
MSG 1. It's a flavour enhancer added to many foods
2. Made from glutamic acid- produced by the bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicium
3.…read more

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Pharmaceutical drug
Aspirin is found in the leaves and bark of the willow tree used as an analgesic and anti flammatory
Taxol is from the bark of the pacific yew tree, used as an anticancer drug
Quinine made from the bark of cinchona tree from South America used as an antimalarial drug
gives the taste in tonic water; now most malarial parasites resistant to quinine to some extent
Artemisinin made from Chinese herb Artemisia used as an effective antimalarial drug
Morphine effects the nervous system…read more

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Potential to treat many diseases that were 1. Scientists are still unaware of the long
incurable before. Patients suffering from term effects of this therapy as they are
Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia. directly playing with nature.
Alzheimer's disease e.t.c have observed 2. The use of embryonic stem cell has set
commendable improvement in their state religious groups and political parties into
post stem cell treatment. frenzy. It has stirred many debates where
2.…read more


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