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Biology
Active Transport ­ absorbing a substance against a concentration gradient. Requires
energy produced by respiration. In humans, sugar may be absorbed from the intestine
and the kidney tubules by A.T.


Exchanging Material in Humans
In humans there are organ systems that are specialised to aid the exchange of materials.…

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The trachea divides into 2 tubes called bronchi, which divide again several times to form
bronchioles, which divide again and again to end in air sacs called alveoli!



The size of stomata is controlled by guard cells. If plants lose water faster than it is gained
by the root hair…

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How are dissolved materials transported around the body?

The heart acts as a pump in a double circulation system. Blood flows around the system and
passes through the heart twice on each circuit.

Blood travels AWAY from the heart through arteries and TOWARDS the heart through veins.
In the organs,…

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CIRCULATION SYSTEM ONE
right side
Deoxygenated blood from the heart, to the lungs to pick up oxygen, then back to the heart.




How does exercise affect the exchanges within the body?

During exercise:
Heart rate increases
Arteries supplying muscles dilate
Rate and depth of breathing increases
Increased blood flow to…

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