Biology Unit 2 Keywords

Here are just some of the key words and their descriptions for Biology Unit 2 GCSE AQA that I have come across! 

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B2 Keywords.
Active Site: The site on an enzyme where the reactants bind.
Aerobic Respiration: Breaking down food using oxygen to release energy to cells.
Oxygen + Glucose Carbon dioxide + Water
Allele: A version of a particular gene.
Amino Acids: The building blocks of a protein.
Amylase: The enzyme made in the salivary glands and the pancreas which speeds up
the breakdown of starch into simple sugars.
Anaerobic Respiration: Breaking down food without oxygen to release energy for the
cells.
Bile: Yellowygreen liquid made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder. It is
released into the small intestine and emulsifies fats. Biological Detergent: Washing
detergent that contains
enzymes.
Carbohydrase: Enzyme
which speeds up the
breakdown of carbohydrates.
Catalyst: A substance that
speeds up a chemical reaction
without being used up or
changed itself chemically by
the end of the reaction.
Cell Membrane: The
membrane around the contents
of a cell which controls what moves in and out of the cell.
Cell Wall: A rigid structure which surrounds the cells of living organisms apart from
animals.
Cellulose: A big carbohydrate molecule which makes up plant and algal cells.
Chlorophyll: The green pigment contained in the chloroplasts.
Chloroplasts: The organelles in which photosynthesis takes place.
Concentration Gradient: The gradient between an area where a substance is at a high
concentration and an area where is at a low concentration.
Cystic Fibrosis: A genetic disease that affects the lungs, digestive and reproductive
systems. It is inherited through a recessive allele.
Cytoplasm: The waterbased gel in which the organelles of all living cells are
suspended.
Denature: Change the shape of an enzyme so that it can no longer speed up a reaction.
Diffusion: The net movement of particles of a gas or a solute from an area of high
concentration to an area of low concentration (along a concentration gradient).
Digestive Juices: The mixture of enzymes and other chemicals produced by the
digestive system.
Digestive System: The organ system running from the mouth to the anus where the food
is digested.

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Dominant: The characteristic that will show up in the offspring even if only one of the
alleles is inherited.
Enzyme: Protein molecule which acts as a biological enzyme. It changes the rate of
chemical reactions without being affected itself at the end of the reaction.
Epidermal Tissue: The tissue of the epidermis ­ the outer layer of an organism.
Epithelial: Tissue made up of relatively unspecialised cells which line the tubes and
organs of the body.…read more

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Mitosis: Asexual sex division where two identical cells are formed. As a result of this
all your body cells have the same chromosomes. This means they have the same genetic
information. Before the cell divides it produces new copies of the chromosomes in the
nucleus. Then the cell divides one to form two genetically identical cells. Each daughter
cell contains four chromosomes (2 pairs) identical to the parent cell.
Muscular Tissue: The tissue which makes up the muscles. It can contract and relax.…read more

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