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Biology unit 1 specification
Pathogens
Pathogens include bacteria, viruses and fungi
Disease can result from pathogenic microorganisms penetrating any of an organism's
interfaces with the environment. These interfaces include the digestive and gas-exchange
systems. Pathogens cause disease by damaging the cells of the host and by producing toxins.


Lifestyle
Lifestyle…

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Carbohydrate digestion
Carbohydrates in starch; the role of salivary and pancreatic amylases and of maltose located
in the intestinal epithelium, disaccharides sucrose and lactase.
Biological molecules such as carbohydrates and proteins are often polymers and are based
on a small number of chemical elements.
Monosaccharides are the basic molecular units…

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Diffusion
Diffusion is the passive movement of substances down a concentration gradient.
Surface area, difference in concentration and the thickness of the exchange surface affect
the rate of diffusion.
The role of carrier proteins and protein channels in facilitated diffusion.
Candidates should be able to use the fluid-mosaic model to…

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Candidates should be able to; explain the symptoms of diseases and conditions affecting the
lungs in terms of gas exchange and respiration, interpret data relating to the effects of
pollution and smoking on the incidence of lung disease, and recognise correlations and causal
relationships.


The heart
Heart structure and function…

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discuss the ways in which society uses scientific knowledge relating to vaccines and
monoclonal antibodies to inform decision-making.

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