Biology Unit 1 Specification (AS AQA)

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Biology unit 1 specification
Pathogens include bacteria, viruses and fungi
Disease can result from pathogenic microorganisms penetrating any of an organism's
interfaces with the environment. These interfaces include the digestive and gas-exchange
systems. Pathogens cause disease by damaging the cells of the host and by producing toxins.
Lifestyle can affect human health
Specific risk factors are associated with cancer and coronary heart disease.
Changes in lifestyle may also be associated with a reduced risk of contracting these
Candidates should be able to analyse data associated with specific risk factors and the
incidence of disease, and recognise correlations and causal relationships
The digestive system
The digestive system
The gross structure of the human digestive system limited to the oesophagus, stomach, small
and large intestines, and rectum. The glands associated with this system limited to the
salivary glands and the pancreas.
Digestion is the process in which large molecules are hydrolysed by enzymes to produce
smaller molecules that can be absorbed and assimilated
Proteins have a variety of functions within all living organisms
The general structure of an amino acid
Condensation and the formation of peptide bonds linking together amino acids to form
polypeptides. The relationship between primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary
structure, and protein function.
The biuret test for proteins.
Enzyme action
Enzymes as catalysts lowering activation energy through the formation of enzyme-substrate
The lock and key and induced fit models of enzyme action
Enzyme properties
The properties of enzymes relating to their tertiary structure. Description and explanation of
the effects of temperature, competitive and non-competitive inhibitors, pH, and substrate

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Carbohydrate digestion
Carbohydrates in starch; the role of salivary and pancreatic amylases and of maltose located
in the intestinal epithelium, disaccharides sucrose and lactase.
Biological molecules such as carbohydrates and proteins are often polymers and are based
on a small number of chemical elements.
Monosaccharides are the basic molecular units of carbohydrates.
The structure of -glucose and the linking of -glucose by glycosidic bonds formed by
condensation to form maltose and starch.
Sucrose is formed by glucose and fructose.…read more

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Diffusion is the passive movement of substances down a concentration gradient.
Surface area, difference in concentration and the thickness of the exchange surface affect
the rate of diffusion.
The role of carrier proteins and protein channels in facilitated diffusion.
Candidates should be able to use the fluid-mosaic model to explain appropriate properties
of plasma membranes.…read more

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Candidates should be able to; explain the symptoms of diseases and conditions affecting the
lungs in terms of gas exchange and respiration, interpret data relating to the effects of
pollution and smoking on the incidence of lung disease, and recognise correlations and causal
The heart
Heart structure and function
The gross structure of the human heart and its associated blood vessels in relation to
Pressure and volume changes and associated valve movements during the cardiac cycle.…read more

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