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BLOOD CLOT PROCESS
Cell fragments called platelets stick to the wall of the damaged blood
vessel forming a plug.
A series of chemical changes occur in the blood, resulting in
prothrombin being converted into thrombin.
Thrombin is an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of fibrinogen into
long soluble strands of…

Page 2

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Structure of Artery Structure of Capillary Structure of Vein




Small Lumen making it Link the veins and Large Lumen
hard for flood flow arteries
Elastic fibres in wall to Thin walls with no Thin layer of smooth
allow stretching elastic fibres, muscle muscles with few
or collagen allowing elastic fibres…

Page 3

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When one variable changes, there is also a change in an
accompanying variable

THE LUNG AND GAS EXCHANGE
Large surface area of capillary network
Faster/more exchange of gases
Increased diffusion
Occurs through the cell membrane
Membrane is thin ;
Oxygen enters cell through water
Carbon dioxide leaves cell (into water)…

Page 4

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Active transport
Against a conc. Gradient
Requires ATP
Proteins are involved
Protein carrier changes shape

Diffusion
Down a conc. Gradient
Doesn't require energy

Facilitated diffusion
Proteins act as channels
Channels open and close
Large polar molecule to pass through
Down a conc. gradient

Aorta carries oxygenated blood away from the…

Page 5

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Narrow arteries
More likely to develop atherosclerosis




Triglycerides
1 glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acid molecules
Joined by ester bonds
Bond is formed by condensation
Unsaturated lipids have double bonds between carbon atoms and
between carbon and oxygen atoms
Saturated lipids have more hydrogen atoms than unsaturated lipids

Amniocentesis
Amniotic…

Page 6

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White blood cells build up
Cholesterol build up
Prothrombin - thrombin
Thrombin is a catalyst
Fibrinogen - fibrin - platelets
Forms a mesh of fibres
Forms an atheroma
loss of elasticity

Vitamin C content experiment
DC PIP
Use different juices
Titrate juice with DC PIP
Colour change from blue to…

Page 7

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Blocks the ducts
In the pancreas
Enzymes cannot reach small intestines
Reduced digestion of food
Reduced absorption

Permeability experiment
Beetroot cell tissue
Wash thoroughly prior
Use a water bath to control temperature
At least 5 diff. temperatures
Controlled ­ size of beetroot
Use colorimeter
Observe colour absorbency
Repeat


Primary structure…

Page 8

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coiled
1-4 bonds
Amylopectin
branched chain
uncoiled
1-4 & 1-6 bonds

Enzyme substrate experiment
Use a range of substrate concentrations
Mix the enzyme and substrate
Measure the pH using a pH indicator
Repeat without the enzyme
Control enzyme concentration
Controlled variable?
Repeats


Drug used to treat high blood pressure
Antihypertensive…

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Ricky Rozay

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yaar plz write which exam board

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