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Biology Revision - Adaptation (Unit 1)
1. Insulation
The rate of heat loss is proportional to the difference between the two temperatures (inside and
outside the huddle of animals), so if the temperature gradient on a graph is reduced, the heat loss is
The less the surface area exposed,…

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water due to transpiration. The small sharp spines on a cactus prevent other organisms from
attacking the plant for water and other nutrients. They also provide shade for the plant and direct
rain water to the base of the plant so that the roots can absorb it. They serve also…

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Hunting - Male lions have large thick manes, which acts as a protection from other animals biting
them while fighting. The fur prevents the other animal's teeth from finding a grip on its neck, as the
fur is slick. This makes the male lion much harder to kill. The lions…

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Guard cell - they open and close the stoma.

Chloroplasts include chlorophyll which traps energy from light allowing the chloroplasts to

4. Bioindicators
What they are

Bioindicators are living things like animals and plants.

What they are for
They tell us about the environment that species lives in for…

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AUTUMN Leaves fall and change Birds migrate away Mild
colour Animals hibernate

WINTER Not much More animals hibernate Cold/dark

Population Increase/Decrease

A population is a group of the same animals or plants living in the same habitat.
Micro-organisms can be used to study population growth because they reproduce rapidly…

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They are cold/ low temperature loving organisms.

Other animals would not survive these conditions because their inner enzymes would be
denatures, leading to their death. Denaturing is the losing of shape of an enzyme, after which
the enzymes do not function properly afterwards. Also, any other creature's blood would…

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7. How Science Works

Accuracy is when we have found the true value of an experiment i.e. the closest value to the
exact value required.


Precise is when you measure your results extremely carefully, making sure that it is a fair test.


Reliable is when you have…




This is a very well written set of notes for the AQA GCSE Unit 1 that provide a very good summary of the key points. The notes cover adaptations, pollution indicators and organisms living in extreme habitats. Writing a glossary or set of flashcards for the key terms would be a useful exercise.

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