Biology Unit 1.4 Revision Notes (Lungs)

I hope you find these useful!

Basically, I have divided my notes up into parts of the syllabus, so 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5 and 1.6 are separate documents, but are all on here.

The part of the syllabus relevant to these notes is on the cover page at the start of the notes.

Sorry for any spelling mistakes or anything :L.

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Lung The gross structure of the human gas exchange system limited to the alveoli, bronchioles,
bronchi, trachea and lungs.
The essential features of the alveolar epithelium as a surface over which gas exchange takes

The exchange of gases in the lungs.

Pulmonary ventilation as the product of tidal…

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Oxygen diffuses out of the alveoli, across the thin, squamous alveolar epithelium and the
capillary endothelium and into the haemoglobin in the blood
Carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveoli from the blood and is breathed out

Alveolar Adaptations

Rate of Diffusion

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Breathing Mechanism

Lungs lie within the thoracic cavity, a space enclosed by the ribs and diaphragm
Breathing involves the alternate increase (inspiration) and decrease (expiration) of the air
pressure in the lungs relative to the atmospheric pressure

Inspiration Expiration
1. The intercostal and diaphragm muscles 1. The intercostal and diaphragm…

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The equation is:

P ulmonary ventilation = T idal volume ×V entilation rate

Tidal volume is the volume of air in each breath (usually about 0.4dm3)
Ventilation rate is the number of breaths per minute (usually 15 for a person at rest)
Tidal volume and ventilation rate can be taken…

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The The course of infection, symptoms and transmission of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Biological The effects of fibrosis, asthma and emphysema on lung function.
Basis of
Lung Candidates should be able to
Explain the symptoms of diseases and conditions affecting the lungs in terms of gas
exchange and respiration
Interpret data…

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Effects of Fibrosis, Asthma and Emphysema

Fibrosis, asthma and emphysema all reduce the rate of gas exchange in the alveoli. Less
oxygen can diffuse into the bloodstream, the body cells receive less oxygen and therefore
the rate of aerobic respiration is reduced
This means that less energy is released and…

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REALLY useful, thankyou very much!!! :D :D

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