Biology three keywords

The essential keywords which are mostly used for the biology three

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  • Created on: 20-05-10 13:34
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Biology 3 ­ keywords
Active transport ­ the movement of substances against a concentration gradient
Aerobic ­ with oxygen
Alveoli ­ air sacs in the lungs. Oxygen diffuses into them and carbon dioxide diffuses
out of them
Anaerobic ­ without oxygen
Biogas ­ fuel produced from the anaerobic decomposition of organic waste
Blood plasma ­ the clear fluid part of blood that contains proteins and minerals
Concentration gradient ­ a change in the concentration of a substance from one
region to another
Culture medium ­ a nutrient system used for the artificial growth of bacteria and other
Dialysis ­ the artificial removal of urea and excess material from the blood (used when
kidneys fail)
Diffusion ­ the mixing of two substances through the natural movement of their
particles from a high concentration to a low concentration
Dilate ­ to widen or enlarge
Fermentation ­ the conversion of sugar to alcohol and carbon dioxide using yeast
Germinating ­ when a seed begins to grow
Glycogen ­ a form of starch in which sugars are stored in the body for energy
Guard cells pairs of sausageshaped plant cells which open and close to allow
oxygen into the leaf and water and carbon dioxide out (through the stomata)
Haemoglobin ­ red pigment in the red blood cells which carries oxygen to the organs
Immune system ­ the body's defence system against infections and diseases
(consists of white blood cells and antibodies)
Incubated ­ grown in a laboratory under controlled conditions
Irradiation ­ exposure to radiation to kill microorganisms
Lactic acid ­ a compound produced when cells respire without oxygen (i.e.
Malting ­ e.g. germinating barley under controlled conditions then drying it in a kiln
(oven) ­ the starch is converted to glucose
Methane ­ clear gas given off by animal waste: can be used as a fuel
Mycoprotein ­ a proteinrich food produced from fungi
Osmosis ­ the movement of water through a selectively or partially permeable
membrane into a solution with lower water concentration
Oxygen debt ­ oxygen deficiency caused by intense exercise
Oxyhaemoglobin ­ the combination of oxygen and haemoglobin
Partially permeable ­ a barrier which allows only certain substances through
Penicillin ­ antibiotic drug used to treat bacterial infection (discovered by Alexander
Penicillium ­ a mould, from which penicillin is developed
Petri dish ­ a round, shallow dish used to grow bacteria
Root hair cells ­ found on plants, absorb water from the soil
Specialised ­ adapted for a particular purpose
Sterilised ­ free from all microorganisms
Stomata ­ openings / pores in leaves
Surface area ­ the external area of a living thing
Tissue type ­ inherited characteristics present on the surface of tissue cells
Transpiration ­ evaporation of water from plants (through the stomata)

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Urea ­ waste product of proteins formed in the liver and excreted in urine
Urine ­ water and waste products filtered by the kidneys
Villi ­ projections which stick out from the walls of the small intestine.…read more


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