Biology Revison Notes - Smooth, Cardiac And Skeletal Muscle

AQA Biology, Energy and Continuity - Muscle

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Biology Revision Notes - Smooth, Cardiac and Skeletal muscle:
Smooth Muscle:
o Oesophagus
o Stomach
o Arteries/Arterioles
o Bladder
Cardiac Muscle:
o Heart
Skeletal Muscle:
o Muscles attached to bones
o Diaphragm
Structural Differences
o Skeletal muscle has ­ UNBRANCHED FIBRES
o Cardiac muscle has ­ BRANCHED FIBRES
Functional Differences:
o Skeletal Muscle ­ can produce rapid powerful contractions, short
refractory period and are capable of tetanic (sustained)
o Cardiac Muscle ­ contracts more slowly, has a long refractory
period , cannot sustain tetanic contractions
o Cardiac muscles are MYOGENIC ­ heart rate is regulated by the
autonomic nervous system
o Skeletal Muscle ­ stimulated to contract by motor neurones in
somatic nervous system
Antagonistic pairs ??? ­ Skeletal muscles exist in antagonistic pairs,
muscles can only exert force when they contract and thus need an
antagonistic pair to return them to their normal length after


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