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What are the uses of muscles in breathing?
Muscles help breathing by contracting and relaxing.
For example, intercostal muscles contract (upwards and outwards) and
relax (inwards and downwards) to help control breathing.
This also applies to the diaphragm, which also contracts (flattens) and
relaxes (becomes dome-shaped) to control breathing.
Parts of a seed
Food store - provides nutrients such as starch ready for germination.
The testa this is a tough protective outer coat.
Radicle becomes the root.
Plumule becomes the shoot.
How are plants adapted?
Water dispersal if a plant lives near water then the seeds adapt to
Wind dispersal seeds are light, long surface area and small.
Animal dispersal small, often inside a fruit to encourage plants to eat
it. Sticky so that they can catch onto an animal's fur.
What is the function of the pollen tube in the style?
After pollination, the pollen grain grows a long pollen tube down the style
to the ovule inside the ovary.
The male nucleus in the pollen then joins the female sex cell.
The fertilised ovule then develops into a seed.
The main types of microorganism and examples
Virus cold, flu. 80nm. No nucleus. Cannot reproduce on its own.
Bacteria yeast, e.coli, salmonella. 5um. Nucleus. Can reproduce on its own.
Fungi Athletes' foot. Size varies. Nucleus. Can reproduce on its own.
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Hypothesis your prediction of the result.
Independent variable the thing you change.
Dependent variable the thing which changes due to the independent
Control variables Factors which could affect the experiment so are kept
the same (eg. Room temperature)
Control experiment an experiment done to prove that the thing you are
changing really does affect the result.
Reliability how accurate your results are compared to others.…read more