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How natural selection may lead to speciation:

Species ­ Organisms that reproduce to produce FERTILE offspring
Population ­ Group of organisms of the same species found in the
same place (habitat) at the same time
Mechanisms which may lead to speciation:
o Isolation:
Physical isolation ­ continental drift, deforestation,

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Metabolic Pathways:

Anabolic ­ makes larger molecules from smaller ones and store
energy e.g. photosynthesis
Catabolic ­ break down larger molecules to smaller ones. They
release energy e.g. respiration and digestion
Rate Determining or Rate Limiting step ­ slowest step
Negative Feedback - departure from a set level is detected…

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Aerobic respiration:

o Occurs in the cytoplasm
o Initial Substrate ­ glucose
o Final products ­ 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, reduced NAD
Link Reaction:
o Links Glycolysis in the cytoplasm with Krebs cycle in the
o Decarboxylation ­ loss of carbon
Krebs Cycle:
Take place in the matrix…

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Basic Leaf Structure:

Functions of:
o Cuticle ­ reduces water loss through leaf surface
o Xylem ­ transports water and mineral ions (potassium)
o Phloem ­ transports sucrose and other solutes
o Sucrose = glucose and fructose
o Upper epidermis is colourless ­ so sunlight can reach the
chloroplast in…


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