biology revision cards for as 2nd unit

all of biology revision up to transmission of disease

this is how i learn so i hope it helps you! =D

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  • Created on: 06-06-11 18:51
Preview of biology revision cards for as 2nd unit

First 67 words of the document:

Biological molecules
Carbohydrates:
Monosaccharides
-
glucose, CHO
Have six carbons so are
called
hexose sugars. This is an
glucose.
OH= Hydroxyl group
This is a glucose.
It has the same structure
as the
alpha glucose but the H
and OH
are reversed on carbon-
1
Disaccharides- Before:
After:

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Page 2

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Maltose (2 alpha glucose
bonded together)
Water is released from
bond formation =>
condensation
It forms a 1-4 glycosidic
bond.
Bond making=> water
appears- condensation
Bond breaking=> water is
used to break bonds-
hydrolysis
Polysaccharides-
starch, glycogen,
cellulose:
Starch (amylose) ­
a polymer of alpha
glucose with 1-4
glycosidic bonds
formed by
condensation reactions.
This molecule winds up
into a spiral
Function= energy storage
for molecules in plants
because it's made of
many glucose molecules
which can be used in
respiration to produce
energy.…read more

Page 3

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Glycogen=> a
polymer of
alpha
glucose with
1-4 and 1-6
glycosidic
bonds,
formed
by condensation
reactions- the
molecule is
branched.
Function= energy
storage in muscle
and liver cells in
animals. It's compact
as it is branched and
it's
insoluble and all the
glucose molecules
are used in
respiration to
provide energy.
Cellulose
(fibre) =>
found in
plant cell
walls. A
polymer of
beta glucose
with 1-4
glycosidic bonds,
formed by
condensation
reactions, with
every other
molecule inverted.…read more

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Function: to provide
tensile strength in
plant cell walls-
strong because of
all the molecules
hydrogen
bonded together.
Biochemical tests:
Testing for: Description Result
Starch Add a few drops Brown to black
of iodine
solution
Reducing Like glucose.…read more

Page 6

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There are many
different
triglycerides
because they have
different
combinations of
fatty acids. Fatty
acids are different
because they have
different numbers
of carbons in the
chain and they have
different levels of
saturation (double
bonds).…read more

Page 7

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Phospholipids (hydrophobic tails Glycerol molecule
2 fatty acids
Inorganic phosphate
group
ester bonds
and hydrophilic head).
Formed by condensation and forms a
main part of the plasma membrane.
It also controls the movement of
molecules across the membrane by
preventing cell leakage.
Cholesterol ­ made up of 4
carbon- based ring structures
joined together
It forms a small thin molecule that fits into
the lipid bilayer giving strength and
stability. It's used to
form steroid hormones.…read more

Page 8

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Amino acids- 20 different ones
found in proteins
R= variable group · NH=amine group ·
COOH= carboxylic group
If R= H => glycine
If R=CHSH => cysteine
Dipeptide
Peptide bond formation > condensation
Poly peptides are a chain of amino acids
joined by peptide bonds…read more

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Protein structure:
Primary level (1°) => order of amino acids in the poly peptide chain. This is controlled by DNA.
Secondary level (2°) => the chain spirals to form an helix. Hydrogen bonds form between
the spirals. Or it can form a pleat.
Tertiary level (3°) => enzymes. Hydrogen bonds holding it in a fixed 3D shape. Bonds form
between R groups of amino acids some distance apart in the chain Hydrogen, ionic and disulphide
bonds). Some R groups are hydrophobic and others are hydrophyllic.…read more

Page 10

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Nucleic acids (DNA & RNA) ­ these are
polymers of nucleotides.…read more

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