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KEEPING HEALTHY
· A HEALTHY DIET contains the right amounts and
proportions of NUTRIENTS and ENERGY that the
body needs.
· A person who does not eat a balanced diet may
become MALNOURISHED.
· DEFICIENCY DISEASES are caused by too little of
a NUTRIENT.
· CARBOHYDRATES,FATS and PROTEINS - release
ENERGY and provide NUTRIENTS.
· MINERAL IONS and VITAMINS - needed in small
amounts so cells can work effectively.
· METABOLLIC RATE - The rate at which all the
chemical reactions are carried out within the body.
· Can be affected by factors including MUSCLE,
EXERCISE and some INHERITED FACTORS.
· Energy is EXPENDED (used) during exercise.
· The body gains MASS when more ENERGY is
gained/CONSUMED than EXPENDED through…read more

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PATHOGENS and INFECTION
· Microorganisms that cause disease are called
PATHOGENS.
· When pathogens INFECT us they REPRODUCE very
quickly.
· BACTERIA may release TOXINS that make us feel ill.
· BACTERIA are much smaller than our cells.
· VIRUSES are smaller than BACTERIA.
· VIRUSES take over a body cell's DNA causing the cell
to make TOXINS.
· The body has different ways of protecting itself against
PATHOGENS.
· The IMMUNE SYSTEM helps to protect the body against
PATHOGENS.
· WHITE BLOOD CELLS can INGEST pathogens and destroy
them.…read more

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IMMUNISATION and TREATING
DISEASES
· A VACCINE makes someone IMMUNE to a DISEASE.
· It contains a small amount of dead or inactive form of
the PATHOGEN.
· The VACCINE causes your WHITE BLOOD CELLS to
make ANTIBODIES and destroy the virus
· If these PATHOGENS infect you later your immune
system remembers how to DESTROY it and responds
quickly so you do not fall ill again
· A MUTATION produces a new strain of a PATHOGEN
· An EPIDEMIC is where many people catch a disease at
the same time
· A PANDEMIC is when many people in many places
have the same disease at the same time
· ANTIBIOTICS are medicines that kill bacterial
pathogens inside the body
· Specific bacteria are only killed by a specific
ANTIBIOTIC
· VIRUSES reproduce in the cells of another organism
and damage the cells, antibiotics have no affect on…read more

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CULTURES
· STERILISE the dishes and culture media
· STERILISATION kills MICROORGANISMS
· PETRI DISHES can be STERILISED by
AUTOCLAVING or heating to a HIGH
TEMPERATURE
· The INOCULATING LOOP is also STERILISED in a
hot flame and then cooled before the transfer of
MICROORGANISMS
· Once the MICROORGANISMS have bee
TRANSFERRED the LID is secured to the DISH
with tape to stop other MCROORGANISMS
getting in.
· CULTURES are to be INCUBATED but up to a
MAXIMUM OF 25C as temperatures higher than
this cause rapid growth in BACTERIA.…read more

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RECEPTORS, RESPONSES and
NEURONS
· The CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM consists of the
BRAIN and SPINAL CHORD.
· EFFECTORS are either muscles of glands: MUSCLES
contract and GLANDS release chemicals.
· RECEPTORS detect STIMULI (the five senses).
· Information from RECEPTORS in your sense organs
pass along neurons to you CNS, these respond by
sending information to your EFFECTORS.
· SENSORY NEURONES carry impulses from
RECEPTOR to CNS
· MOTOR NEURONES carry signals from the CNS to
EFFECTORS
· RELAY NEURONES carry impulses from one part of
the CNS to another.
· NEURONES are specially adapted cells that carry
Your receptor detects a stimulus,
ELECTRICAL than an impulse travels along the sensory neurone. The
SIGNALS.
impulse is passed to a relay neurone in the CNS before travelling along a motor neurone. The
impulse reaches the effectors that respond.…read more

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