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Golgi apparatus recieves proteins from ER and modifies them.

Xerophyte -a plant that is adapted to reduce water loss so it can survive in dry conditions.

Eukaryote- an organism having cells with a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

Potometers measure the amount of water taken up by a plant, or the…

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Repair - Damaged cells need to be replaced by new ones to preform the same function and
need to be genetically identical.

Asexual reproduction - Single celled organisms divide to produce two daughter cells that are
separate organisms. Some multicellular organisms produce offspring from parts of the parent.



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may be involved in cells signalling and allow recognition by the immune system. Glycoproteins
can also bind cells together in tissues.
Cardiac cycle;

1. Relaxation of Ventricles and atria.
2. Blood enters atria from veins returning to heart.
3. Atria fill with blood.
4. Atria contract (atrial systole).
5. Blood…

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What is translocation?

Translocation is the transport of assimilates throughout the plant, in the phloem tissue.

What is a source?

A source releases sucrose into the phloem.

What is a sink?

A sink removes sucrose from the phloem.

Describe how the phloem is actively loaded at the source...

ATP is…

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7-10nm thick.
phosphate HEAD (which is hydrophilic- "water loving").
two fatty acid TAILS which are hydrophobic ("water hating").
called a BILAYER because the cytoplasm inside the cell and the fluid outside the cell
contains a lot of water. so the heads (water loving) face OUT towards the water on

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Active transport is essentially the same concept as facilitated diffusion through a carrier
protein, (substance to be transported fits into carrier protein, carrier protein changes shape,
carrier protein releases substance on other side of membrane) however the difference is:
active transport uses ATP from energy to move (specific) substance AGAINST…

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4) The low partial pressure of oxygen causes the adult haemoglobin to release oxygen
which the fetus picks up.

So the curve for fetus is higher than adult.

Water moves up the xylem in 3 ways

1) Root pressure/Hydrostatic pressure:
As the minerals are ACTIVELY transported into the xylem vessel,…

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Describe the functions of glycoproteins in cell surface membrane?
Acts as receptor sites for hormones due to its complementary shape.
Cell Adhesion- binds tissues together providing stability.

Forms OH bonds with water- again stability.

Regulates what enters and leaves (pores/channels/carrier proteins).

Cell signalling- Recognises cells as "self" so involved…


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