Biology Notes - B7 and Ideas in Context

Biology notes in OpenDocument format - you should be able to open these in OpenOffice, Word or anything like that. This covers B7 and the rest of the extension science sections for OCR 21st Century Science. Good luck!

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Revision Notes ­ Biology (Extension)
B7: Life, etc.
Respiration
Respiration is the process by which we release the energy from glucose in our
food.
It happens constantly in every cell in the body.
This energy is used to build up larger molecules (i.e. proteins), contract muscles
and maintain a constant body temperature.
There are two types of respiration, which have different formulae:
1. Aerobic respiration happens when there's plenty of oxygen available. It happens
most of the time, and is the most effective way of releasing energy:
Glucose + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide + Water + LOTS OF ENERGY
2. Anaerobic respiration happens when there's not enough oxygen to go around,
i.e. when you exercise really hard. It is not a very effective way of releasing energy
because the glucose is only partially broken down:
Glucose -> Lactic Acid + NOT SO MUCH ENERGY
This lactic acid builds up in the muscles and needs to be broken down, so we
breathe heavily after we've finished exercising to pay off our "oxygen debt" and
move the acid into the liver to be broken down.
The energy released by respiration is used to make a chemical called ATP, which
carries the energy to the cells where it is needed.
ATP is synthesised from ADP, using energy. When it is broken back down into
ADP, the energy is released, meaning that energy can be transported to where it
needs to be.
Mnemonic: aTp = Transfer; aDp = Dormant
Muscles need the energy from APD to contract, so you respire more when you
exercise.
This means that your heart rate increases, moving oxygenated blood around faster
and removing more CO2, and your breathing rate increases so that you receive
more oxygen.

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When your heart rate increases, so does your blood pressure. This is given as a
measure of your systolic (contracted) blood pressure over your diastolic
(resting) blood pressure. A normal range is between 120/80 and 100/60.
Blood Types
Blood is the liquid that transports stuff around the body (no shit). There are four
types of blood cell that you need to know about:
1. Red Blood Cells ­ Cells that transport oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the
body.
2.…read more

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O IO IO
The genetic diagrams are similar to normal ones, just with different possibilities.
The Circulatory System
The circulatory system is responsible for all transportation in the body. It is
made up of two circuits joined together:
1. The first takes deoxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen and then
pumps it back to the heart.
2. The second takes the oxygenated blood to where it needs to be, then takes it
back to the heart.…read more

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The same can also happen in reverse ­ waste diffuses back into the capillaries. The
advantage of tissue fluid is that multiple cells can share a capillary.
The Skeletal System
The skeleton's job is to support and protect your internal organs, allowing you to
move.
Vertebrates have bones inside the body and a backbone. Invertebrates have
external skeletons.
Joints allow bones to move.…read more

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Family medical history ­ To make diagnosis easier, since diseases often run in
families.
4. Lifestyle factors ­ Whether the patient smokes or drinks heavily.
5. Current medication ­ Because some medications interact badly.
6. Physical activity ­ For fitness programs ­ this means that a fitness program can
be planned that does not injure or under-work the client.
Practitioners keep records for four reasons:
1. Remembering the patient's background information.
2. Remembering their current treatment plan.
3. Seeing if the client is making progress.…read more

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Torn Ligaments ­ When the ligament actually rips in two. Basically sprain 2.0,
and can cause you to lose control of a joint.
4. Torn Tendons ­ A tear in a tendon caused by contracting a muscle while it is
being pulled in the other direction.
The RICE method can be used to treat sprains:
1. R = Rest: Used to avoid any further damage, and especially important during the
first 24 hours.
2.…read more

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Some is lost as heat.
3. Some is excreted.
4. Some is used to make inedible tissues, like bone.
This energy isn't made into biomass, so it doesn't pass on to the next level.
So much energy is lost at each level that you rarely see chains with more than five
trophic levels.…read more

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Symbiosis
When two species live together in direct contact, it is known as a symbiotic
relationship.
Commensalism is a type of relationship that benefits one species but has no effect
on the other, e.g. when an organism uses a host for transportation or housing.
Parasitism is a relationship that benefits one organism but harms the other.
Parasites have special features that help them survive.…read more

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Carriers are common in Africa because the allele gives them an advantage. They are
more likely to survive and pass on their genes because of natural selection.
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants make glucose from sunlight.
This happens in the leaves of all green plants, inside the chloroplasts. These
parts of the cell contain a chemical called chlorophyll.…read more

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Make sure that you don't move it somewhere cooler to deprive it of light.
3. Use a large flask so that there is plenty of CO2, or a fresh source of sodium
hydrogencarbonate.
Plants and Respiration
Plants use respiration to turn glucose and oxygen back into energy and CO2.
Plants respire all the time.
During the day, plants produce more oxygen than they use up, meaning that they
reduce the CO2 levels and increase the oxygen levels.…read more

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